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 Tracing Dan

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PostSubject: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 10:10 am



Walter W. Baucum

"If My people who are called by My name will humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land." - ( II CHRONICLES 7:14)

We of United Hebrew Congregations believe that in order to understand who the Ancient of Days is and to understand His Plan for man we must understand who Israel is and where they are located in the earth today. We also believe that all the world needs to Quest for the knowledge of who He is. Why is it important to understand where the Hebrew Children of Israel are located? It is important because the prophecies of the Hebrew Scriptures (OT) are written primarily to or about these people. So what difference does that make? Simply that when the Calamities at the End of the Age (Tribulation or the Time of Jacob’s Trouble) begin to fall upon these people they need to know who they are, where they are mentioned in Scriptures, and why this is happening to them. The Hebrews consisted of twelve tribal nations that were taken into captivity by their enemies and ten of the tribes have not yet returned. To initiate the Quest for the Ancient of Days and the Lost Ten Tribes we will take the approach of tracing a single tribe in their many journeys over time. The tribe of Dan was prophesied to leave way marks along their trail and this is our attempt to follow that trail. We hope you enjoy the journey.

This is the first instalment of an article titled Tracing Dan published and copyrighted by United
Hebrew Congregations of Picayune, MS. and is reproduced with their kind permission.

BY NOW so much work has been done on tracing the Israelite tribes that only stubborn, hard-headed die-hards refuse to
see who they are in our modern world today. The list of names of those who have participated in this endeavor are legion, perhaps the foremost being E. Raymond Capt and Yair Davidy, the latter an Australian-born authority on the “lost tribes” now living in Israel. His three books on the subject, The Tribes, Ephraim, and Lost Israelite Identity, replete with Bibliography and quoted sources a mile long, should remove all doubt from the dissenters. In the following study, I intend to use much of his material and his conclusions, as well as direct quotes from him, for Part I, and I will use material from Barry Fell andhis three
books, America B.C., Saga America, and Bronze Age America, for Part II. Included in both, of course, will be other sources.

This work, then, will be divided into two parts, Part I tracing the Israelite tribe of Dan from its forced slavery in Egypt to its capture and exile by the Assyrians, its identification with the Cimmerian hosts that moved from the Middle East into Europe, and some of the specific places Danites themselves settled and/or became associated with. Part II will take up Dan’s crossing of the Atlantic and settling in America, either alone or in company with the Phoenicians (Canaanites), North Africans, and Celtic peoples from North Europe and the Mediterranean areas other than those already mentioned. The evidence that the countries of West Europe, Britain, and the U.S. are the Israelite tribes is overwhelming. America (generic term for the U.S.) is
not the Tribe of Dan, but Dan was probably the first Israelite tribe over here thousands of years ago and today is mixed among us.

In order to make this claim plausible and acceptable, some basic assumptions must first be made:

1) is that I have no vast libraries, nor even access to any, so that the reader must accept that the authors, works, and references used in this paper have been studied and accepted as serious works and easily provable to even the most critical non-believer. In a paper of this length, I haven’t the time, nor have I the inclination, to re-prove what already has been proved, and by researchers much more able and knowledgeable than I.

2) is that Eternal has kept the bloodlines, physical characteristics, and other cultural peculiarities of the Israelite tribes virtually intact. That diffusion and mixing of cultural traits, tools and weapons, and dietary considerations all take place over time, we have no doubt. That some mixing, or intermarriage, of Israelites, among their own tribes and among other nations, would inevitably occur must be accepted. Because Eternal has much to say in prophecy about the future of the Israelite tribes, our assumption must be that in some way known only to Him, He has kept the tribes as more or less identifiable and unified entities. Else the prophecies and many of the promises made about the outcome of these Israelite peoples would obviate the authenticity of the Holy Scriptures with all that they have to say about them. I personally believe that Yair Davidy has done this with his vast, in-depth examination of the mythology, ethnic-names, languages, and religious customs that connect Celtic (Britain, Ireland, and Gaul), North African, and Scandinavian peoples to these ancient Israelites. He brings evidence from the Holy Scriptures, Talmud, archaeology, mythology, linguistics, Greek and Roman authors, and general history. Barry Fell, the world’s
foremost authority on ancient languages (until his untimely death), takes up where Yair Davidy leaves off, proving beyond a shadow of a doubt (to those with open minds) that Israelites came to America over 3,000 years ago and continued coming, across both the Atlantic and the Pacific, until about 200 years before Columbus re-started the trend.

3) Another point is that many scriptures indicate a portion of the Israelite exiles were destined to be taken overseas and re-settled elsewhere. ISAIAH 11:11, for example, says:

“The Eternal shall set His hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His people, that shall be left from Ashur, and from Mitsrayim, from Patros, and from Cush, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the Isles of the Sea.”

Then, if I claim that trans-oceanic voyages took place two to three thousand years ago, perhaps a third assumption must be that the North American continent is included in this prophecy as being one of the “isles of the sea.” This point will be discussed in further detail later.

4) That ships large enough and capable enough to transport many people over long distances did indeed exist. According to Yair Davidy, at one stage Carthaginians (Phoenicians) are recorded to have transported 30,000 men and women in 60 ships on a colonizing venture beyond the Pillars of Hercules (now Gibraltar), apparently to West Africa (Mr. Davidy’s words-for my two cents, it could have been a venture to the “island” beyond the sunset, well known to the ancient world and what we call America today). This, he continues, was in 500-480 B.C.E. (Before Common Era) and shows that at that time, large-scale migration and colonization by sea were practiced. Previously, in the era 1100-800 B.C.E., the Phoenicians had had, in a practical sense, a trade monopoly over the sea trade routes in the Mediterranean area and beyond it. The Phoenicians established settlements in North Africa, in Sardinia, Corsica, and Sicily and also had trading emporiums in Spain and Britain.

Maps had to exist for these Phoenicians (sometimes Egyptian-hired) to traverse the globe. Stecchini’s geodesic studies and the cartographic evidence of Charles Hapgood prove that our oldest medieval maps are nothing but copies of copies whose lost originals go far back into antiquity. By modern means, they determined that the originals had been laid out by means of spherical geometry, just like our own modem maps. Paul Tesla’s work in this same area was later checked and approved without qualification by top U.S. military cartographers, which would seem to place its technical aspects beyond dispute.

Checking further on this, a researcher, Paul Tesla, found that the celebrated Piri Reis map has a strange feature. It shows Antarctica in unglaciated condition, a geological event which could have concluded as much as six thousand years ago. The geodesic center of this map is Cyene, Egypt, Cyene being also the marker for other maps. Piri Reis traced his map back to Alexander the Great, thus, by inference, to the scholars of Alexandria (this according to his own notations on the map). Theoretically, even these early Egyptian map makers could have been using much older materials they had preserved, simply modifying them to suit their new geographical circumstances.(1) A footnote in Lost Israelite Identity deserves comment at this point, so I will copy it verbatim.

“Steven M. Collins opines that Phoenicians and Israelites in the service of King Solomon were probably responsible for the exploitation of copper resources in North America in the period between 1000-800 B.C.E.! The inspirational source for this opinion is apparently Barry Fell, Bronze Age America, 1982, wherein the actual dating for the copper-working is given as 2000-1000 B.C.E. based on radio-carbon dating. This dating would not make allowance for sun-spot activity now acknowledged to arrest the process of Carbon-14 disintegration on which radio-carbon dating is based. An adjustment downwards in the dating is therefore allowable.

A great deal of research has recently been done and several works published to demonstrate that the Phoenicians and other ancient peoples had sea-contact with the American Continents.”(2)

Diodorus of Sicily (16:20) states that, “the Phoenicians planted many colonies throughout Libya (i.e., Africa) and not a few as well in western parts of Europe.” Avienus, himself, implied that these Phoenicians (Remember that Dan had dwelt beside, gone to sea with, and intermarried with these Phoenicians) had established colonies in Britain. Their monopoly of the British tin made them rich and powerful; tin and copper are essential in the production of bronze, which was the basic metal employed by most ancients. Many bronze daggers, axes, and other figurines and implements have been found in the mounds in the East and Midwest of the United States. Even Joseph Smith and the people of his day, believing the mound builders to be red native Americans, would dig into these mounds seeking evidence for their belief. They found many bronze and copper tools in them. The American Indians did not make bronze. But more on this later.

In GENESIS 28:14, The Eternal told Jacob in his famous dream:

“And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south: and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed.”

5) Perhaps a final assumption must be that those of us in United Hebrew Congregations are correct in understanding our role today. That role is telling Israel who they are. Whether it be done now or in our captivity, we see this as Eternal’s purpose in calling us at this time in His great plan. That plan, of course, is to regather Israel to its own land. GENESIS 28:15:

“And behold I am with thee, and will keep thee in all places whither thou goest, and will bring thee again into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.”
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 10:11 am


Davidy, in tracing Irish history, mentions that the “Twathy de Dannan” are recalled by Irish histories as having come from Greece. Usually referred to as the “Tuatha de Danaan,” the expression means “Tribe of Dana.” There really was, he says, a strong connection between the Greeks and the Israelite Tribe of Dan. The founder of Greek civilization in Greek eyes was called Danaus and Classical authors (Manetho, Diodorus of Sicily, et. al.) identified Danaus with Dan of Israel. The early Greek settlements and later city-states never were one race or group of people, but rather were an amalgamation of peoples. In some cases, perhaps these settlers were the same people but who came at different times, the latter ones often having changed so much they could not be recognized as the same people who were there earlier. This is what I believe happened in Greece, particularly with the Tribe of Dan. Among the earliest settlers in Greece were Danites who left Egypt as soon as their people began to be enslaved by the Egyptians (Mine and many others’ belief, much evidence supporting this). The greater number, though, left with the Exodus, and some Danites later went to Greece to found other city-states, therefore adding to those Danites already there.

Greek tradition related how Danaus, after coming out of Egypt, came with his daughters to Greece whereas his brothers went to Jerusalem. These daughters intermarried with the local aristocracy and their children became rulers (Were these locals earlier
Danites who had come there a hundred years or more before?). In honor of Danaus, the local Pelasgian Ionian Greeks renamed themselves Danaioi, by which term the early Greeks are often referred to by Homer.

“Danaus, the father of fifty daughters on coming to Argos took up his abode in the city of Inarchos and throughout Hellas (i.e., Greece). He laid down the law that all people hitherto named Pelasgians were to be named Danaans” - (Strabo 5.2.40 quoting Euripides).(3)

(Diodorus Siculus (1:28:1 5): ”They say that those who set forth with Danaus, likewise from Egypt, settled what is practically the oldest city of Greece, Argos, and that the nations of the Colchi in Pontus and that of the Jews, which lies between Arabia and Syria, were founded as colonies by certain emigrants from their country...” (4)

The Philistines are believed to have been of the same stock as the Greek Pelasgians, and the term “Pelast” (meaning Philistine) in early Greek inscriptions is considered interchangeable for Pelasgian. As suggested, the struggle of the Danites with the Philistines within the Land of Israel may be somehow connected with the coming of the Danaoi to Greece. There is an opinion that the Danaioi formed a peculiar military class amongst the Mycenean Greeks. At all events the Greek account may be understood as saying that a small number of Danites came to Greece, intermarried with local rulers, gave their name to an early already present segment of the population, and not much more than that.

Archaeologists now believe that an offshoot of the Hyksos (the name given the Israelites during and after the Exodus), about the time when they were expelled from Egypt came to Greece, conquered it, and laid the basis for Mycenean civilization. They identify these Hyksos with the Danaioi of Greek tradition.

This version also infers that the Danaioi were relatively few in numbers though qualitatively determinative. (5)

An interesting sidelight on the Danites in Greece is the history of Ireland, where the Danites settled at a later time. Irish history links Israel with its past. First to come to Ireland was Nin Mac Piel (Irish for Ninus, son of Bel or Belus). Ninus, or Nimrod, laid claim to Irish soil, but then left. For 300 years, Irish soil lay generally uninhabited. In 2069 B.C.E. Parthalon and a band of
Hebrew warriors arrived from the Greek world and established a settlement at Inis Saimer, a small island in the river Eme, at Ballyshannon. In 2019 a plague befell the settlers and most died. Those who didn’t fled, Ireland was desolate for another 30 years, and then those who had fled returned, continuing to inhabit it for another 250 years until 1739. The historian Keating
records that another catastrophe befell these Parthalonians, possibly at the hands of the Phoenician Formorians (Esau). Some of this is speculation, since no historian professes to know when the Formorians came to Ireland. (Note that some Irish historians trace their earliest inhabitants to Japheth, not to Shem.)

The second wave of Hebrew migrants to Ireland came from Scythia. They were called Nemedians, after Nemedh, their leader. They dwelt there for 217 years, were gradually enslaved by the Formorians, then fled to Grecian Thrace to escape oppression. They then returned, this time under the name Fir-Bolgs, a name derived from their oppression while in Grecian Thrace.

Thirty-six years after this (1456), the first small migration of the Tuatha-De-Danaan occurred. This was during the time of the wandering of Israel in the Wilderness after coming from Egypt. The records, according to Keating, tell us that while the Tribe of Dan dwelt in Greece, “It happened that a large fleet came from Syria to make war upon the people of the Athenian territory, in consequence of which they were engaged in daily to the Tuatha-de-Danaans, when they saw the natives of the land thus vanquished by the Syrians, they all fled out of the country, through fear of those invaders and they stopped not until they reached the regions of Lochlinn (Scandinavia), where they were welcomed by the inhabitants, on account of their many sciences and arts.. .when they had remained a long time in these cities, they passed over to the North of Alba (Scotland), where they continued 7 years in Dobar and Iardobar.”

Keating continues. “When the Tuatha-De-Danaan had remained 7 years in the north of Alba (Scotland), they passed over to Ireland and landed in the north of this country.”

We know the Tuatha-De-Danaan to be the Tribe of Dan and the invaders from Syria to be armies of Jabin, king of Canaan. This segment of Irish history is found in O’Flaherty’s Ogygia, in Keating’s History of Ireland, pp. 142-46, and in Vol. Il of Stokvis’ Manuel, p. 232.(6)

When I attended college at the University of Southern Mississippi, I found a history of Ireland, began reading it, and was astounded by its being settled by Dan and other Israelite and Hebrew peoples. Since then, I have corroborated this in many other readings. That they settled parts of Greece is found in many sources, including the above and also Homer’s Iliad.

We cannot in this short paper discuss the cultural, artistic, technological, architectural, or other contributions the Israelite tribes have made to the world. EZEKIEL 27:19, though, says,

“Dan and Javan (Greece) from Uzzal were your sub-contracting-intermediaries (Hebrew: “Izvon-aich”); they gave iron manufactured, alloyed, and in bars (Hebrew: “asot kidah ve-kenah”). They were amongst your guarantors” (Hebrew: “ma-arav-aich”).

Manetho said the final expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt included that of a people known as the Danaoi. The Danaoi are
identifiable with Danaus, who, according to Diodorus Siculus (1:28), came to Greece but had left Egypt together with those who built Jerusalem. “Danaoi” and “Danaus” are forms of the name Dan.

“That Greeks and (some of the) Israelites were the same can be attested to also by Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, 13:5;8.

‘Jonathan the high priest of the Jewish the ephori and senate and the people of the Lacedamonians (“Greeks”), send greeting: When in former times an epistle was brought to Onias, who was then our high priest...concerning the kindred that was between us and you, a copy of which is here subjoined ...“‘

“Herodotus 6:53: ‘... in what follows I give the tradition of the Greeks generally. The kings of the Dorians (they say)-counting up to Perseus, son of Danae, ... If we follow the line of Danae, daughter of Acrisius, and trace her progenitors, we shall find that the chiefs of the Dorians are really genuine Egyptians ...“‘

Herodotus means that the chiefs of the Dorians came out of Egypt and therefore he calls them Egyptian even though they may not have been of Egyptian stock. Perseus, we know, was a descendant of Danaus.(7)

An interesting comment regarding Danaus’ landing in Greece from Egypt says he (Danaus) was said to be the son of Belus, sometimes spelled “Bela,” which strongly resembles “Bilhah,” the name of Jacob’s concubine, and mother of Dan - (GENESIS 30:4-6).(Cool

(E. Raymond Capt, quoting Latham), “... in his Ethnology of Europe, p. 157, says, ‘that the eponymous of the Argive (Greek) Danai was no other than that of the Israelite Tribe of Dan, only we are so used to confining ourselves to the soil of Palestine in our consideration of the Israelites, that we treat them as if they were “adscripti glebae,” and ignore the share they may have taken in the ordinary history of the world...what a light would be thrown on the origin of the name Peloponnesus and the history of the Pelop-id family if a bona fide nation of Pelopes, with unequivocal affinities and contemporary annals, had existed on the coast of Asia! Who would have hesitated to connect the two? Yet with the Danai and the Tribe of Dan this is the case, and no one connects them!”’ (9)

Not only did many Danites leave Egypt early, but it was Dan, too, more than any other Tribe, that assimilated itself onto other peoples, integrated more with others (first with Esau-Phoenicia, then others gradually), and is therefore spread out more among more nations. Except for Ireland, Wales, and Norway, and Denmark too (although much less so), Danite blood is mingled among all the other Israelite tribes. It is (and has been), though, kept intact in these countries (just listed) more than anywhere else.

We will not belabor this point much longer. One final thought is that early Greek history (in its formative period) has it that native groups known in Greece-proper as Pelasgians and as Ionians on the west coast of Anatolia (Turkey), together with the Aeolians (a related group), after the coming of the Danaioi, created Mycenean civilization. Mycenean civilization was destroyed and its leaders fled to the north to re-establish themselves as Dorians. The Myceneans were replaced by the Pelopid dynasty from Anatolia and the Achaeans. After the 1100’s, the Dorians returned and re-established their suzerainty. The Dorians referred to their action as “the return of the Heraclids,” meaning the return of the sons of followers of Hercules. Hercules was a hero of the Danaioi. He is based on the figure of Samson, the judge-hero of the Tribe of Dan, there existing many similarities between the two figures.(10)

At this juncture, I would like to tie in the Danite Greeks with their immigration to North Africa, for it is in North Africa that we continue our study. Plutarch, in his writings in the second century C.E. (Common Era), says much about “Greeks.” Briefly, Rome was culturally the child of Greece, and it is pointless to distinguish between specific Hellenistic and Roman influences, for
they are blended. The people have features (in the mosaics) resembling those of North Africans today. Most people customarily call them Arabs because their modern speech is Arabic. But their ancestry is a blend of European, Arab (and/or Israelite) and Berber. Plutarch’s Greeks were just such a people, inheriting the maritime traditions of a varied ancestry, and
speaking a dialect of Greek strongly influenced by North African vocabulary. Even Polybius, who visited North Africa in the second century C.E., regarded the North African Greeks as a people now considerably different from the Greeks of Greece. They called themselves Greeks, but were olive-skinned and represented a fusion of Greek and North African (“North African” being mainly the mixture of Dan and Phoenicia). These people called themselves Libyans, which itself was a generic name for Mediterranean North Africa, and occasionally for all of the continent of Africa.

A long chain of ruined cities in present-day Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco in the desert sands marks the maritime of North Africa where these seafarers once lived. Their cities were beautiful, and the ruins of them are still beautiful. Their marble, limestone, and porphyry columns gleaming in the bright desert sun in stately series along the deserted streets and marketplaces compare remarkably with Ephesus and Pergamon (which I have toured personally) and other ruins of great cities of the ancient world.

Phoenician settlers, who later became independent of the parent cities of Tyre and Sidon in Phoenicia (Lebanon), and eventually founded the Carthaginian Empire, introduced a language “similar to ancient Hebrew.” Around 650 B.C.E., Greeks from Sparta (Tribe of Dan— “Danaans” in Homer’s The Iliad) established a settlement which superseded the Phoenician village in east Libya and became the famous city of Cyrene. “Greek” influence spread over the neighboring region,
where eventually five cities rose and comprised the kingdom of Cyrene. Semitic people that Barry Fell calls Arabs came to North Africa, probably around 600 B.C.E. (long before Islam, which began over 1,000 years later), so now “Arabic” became a part of the language. Even today, many North Africans, including the Berbers, still speak Arabic.


(1) Tesla, Paul, “Pre-Columbian Diffusion: New Lights and Old-The General Scene,” ESOP (Epigraphic Society Occasional
Papers), p. 165.
(2) Davidy, Yair, “The Western Hemisphere Before 1492: A Historical Outline,” Lost Israelite Identity, Canada, 1975.
(3) Ibid., p. 182.
(4) Ibid.
(5) Ibid., p. 183.
(6) Ibid., pp. 321 and 349.
(7) Ibid., p. 202.
(Cool Gawler, Colonel J.C., “Dan The Pioneer of Israel,” Thousand Oaks, California, 1984, p. 15.
(9)Capt, E. Raymond, Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets, U.S.A., 1985.
(10) Davidy, Lost, p. 203.

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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 10:30 am



Walter W. Baucum

"If My people who are called by My name will humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land." - (II CHRONICLES 7:14)

We of United Hebrew Congregations believe that in order to understand who the Ancient of Days is and to understand His Plan for man we must understand who Israel is and where they are located in the earth today. We also believe that all the world needs to Quest for the knowledge of who He is. Why is it important to understand where the Hebrew Children of Israel are located? It is important because the prophecies of the Hebrew Scriptures (OT) are written primarily to or about these people. So what difference does that make? Simply that when the Calamities at the End of the Age (Tribulation or the Time of Jacob’s Trouble) begin to fall upon these people they need to know who they are, where they are mentioned in Scriptures, and why this is happening to them. The Hebrews consisted of twelve tribal nations that were taken into captivity by their enemies and ten of the tribes have not yet returned. To initiate the Quest for the Ancient of Days and the Lost Ten Tribes we will take the approach of tracing a single tribe in their many journeys over time. The tribe of Dan was prophesied to leave way marks along their trail and this is our attempt to follow that trail. We hope you enjoy the journey.

This is the second instalment of an article titled Tracing Dan published and copyrighted by United
Hebrew Congregations of Picayune, MS. and is reproduced with their kind permission.



WHY then, is it important to know that Dan settled in Greece? Because we find that these people who settled much of early Greece and the islands near it also drifted down through time and settled parts of North Africa. Why this itself is important will become clearer later when we discuss America. Again, time does not permit our tracking of Dan through its captivity (those who were still left and associated with the other ten northern tribes) by Assyria around 700 B.C.E. The Israelites were placed around Lakes Van and Urmia, then later migrated westward, both over land and by sea, to settle in Europe, Spain, England, and Scandinavia. While this was happening, though, earlier Danites (as well as parts of the other Israelite tribes) had already settled in many areas of the world that their brothers came to at later times.

Even before the captivity by Assyria, Dan had begun intermarrying with Phoenicia, had gone to sea with them, had colonized and settled virtually the same areas of the Mediterranean and other parts of the world, and had monopolized the tin and copper trade with them. This tin was obtained from “Tarshish,” or Spain, and from the British Isles. The “Phoenicians” who supplied bronze to the Middle East undoubtedly included Dan. In northern Galilee, a well-developed metallurgical industry which produced bronze, indicates the tin used in it came from Britain. Later, a name given to Cornwall and Devon in Britain was Daunonia or Dannonia, and other sources collected by Yair Davidy prove that Israelites from the Tribe of Dan were present in that area. The Phoenician mines in Cornwall (according to local tradition) are all connected with Jews, meaning in their terms, Hebrews from Israel in general. An early British historian, Camden, stated that the mine of Cornwall had been worked under the direction of Israelites from the Tribe of Asher.(1) Asher, Dan, and Naphtali were associated together often, including their camping order in the Wilderness for forty years after the Exodus.

“Why did Dan dwell in ships?” asks the prophetess Deborah in Judges 5:17, somewhere in the period 1300-1200 B.C.E. Why, indeed, says Davidy, if not to make use of them?

Other aspects of so-called “Phoenician” civilization are now accredited by many researchers to Israelites. This includes alphabetical writing, ivory working, architectural innovations, etc. An Assyrian inscription from 879 B.C.E. lists part of the booty taken from Phoenician cities and includes walrus-ivory. The nearest place walrus ivory could have been obtained was in Scandinavia.(2)

Presently, I still believe the Phoenicians were of Esau, but Davidy suggests that they might even have been just another of the Israelite tribes. Numbers 26:23 says, “Of the sons of Issachar after their families...of Pua, the family of the Puni....” The Hebrew name Pua (Phua or “Puni”) is derived from a root denoting a certain plant used to make red dye. The name “Phoenician” has the same connotation.(3) The Romans called the Phoenicians “Poenes” or “Puni, and the Punic Wars were fought between the Phoenician - descended Carthaginians, and the Romans. Considering this further, might this Roman appellation have been applied because so many Danites and/or lssacharites were mixed among the Phoenicians?

Perhaps a final comment on the Danite and Phoenician “intermarriage” explains in part my interest in Dan. Dan was different, almost a rebel. There are expressions in scripture concerning Dan that infer Dan was estranged from the other Israelites at an early date. I have mentioned my belief that some of the Tribe of Dan left Egypt many years before the Exodus. Dan was a proud people (remember Samson?) and probably refused to be enslaved by their Egyptian taskmakers. When the going got tough there in Egypt, the “tough” departed to try their luck elsewhere. Judges 5:17 (already quoted) asks, “Why did Dan
remain in ships?” Genesis 49:16 says, “Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel.” Even Judges 18:29 is strange: “And they called the name of the city Dan, after the name of Dan their father who was born unto Israel.” (4)

So why in the case of Dan (and not of the other tribes) does there seem to be a need to affirm that Dan was born unto Israel? Some “experts” believe Dan was not even an Israelite tribe, but an alien people adopted into Israel. Also, why say that Dan would be, “as one of the tribes of Israel”? To me, it indicates that Dan was somehow different, not an alien people adopted into Israel. Dan, in the land of Israel, adopted foreign customs different from those of most of Israel, and Dan also went into exile at an early stage. Eldad HaDani, in the 800’s C.E. related a tradition that after the northern ten tribes under Jeroboam (928-907 B.C.E.) seceded from Judah, there erupted hostilities between the two halves of the Israelite nation. Rather than engage in a fractricidal conflict, the Tribe of Dan went into exile of their own accord; i.e., they left the land before the Assyrians came down and captured Northern Israel.(5) Whatever happened, Dan was different, alienated from, estranged from, the rest of Israel and went off on its own to seek its destiny. My belief is that many nations of the world have been blessed because of this pioneer of Israel, Dan.

Ezekiel 27:12 says, “Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kinds of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs.” Briefly, Dan-Phoenicia, first in Tyre and Sidon, later built Carthage in North Africa to regulate their western trade, and they were associated with Tarshish (same as “Tarsis,” “Tartessos,”) in Spain. Tartessos once controlled most of Spain and Gaul (France), serving as an emporium for goods from Gaul and Britain (and perhaps America). Avienus wrote that all the southeast area of Spain was controlled by Tartessos. This is the original area of intensified Phoenician colonization and the place of “Samarian” metal production.(6)

Tarshish in scripture is the name of a son of Javan (Genesis 10:4), which indicated Greek connections. Tarshish is also the name of a grandson of Benjamin (I Chronicles 7:10).(7)

The people who settled the Iberian Peninsula later migrated on into Britain, other parts of Scandinavia, and across the Atlantic Ocean into America. These Danite-Phoenicians controlled the tin and copper trade in the Mediterranean and built huge ocean-going vessels with two, three, four, and sometimes even five rows of oars on each side. According to Julius Caesar, they were bigger, faster, and more manoeuverable than the Roman ships. The only reason Rome destroyed them in the First Punic War was because of the Roman grappling iron. The scriptures say that the ships of Tarshish were the largest seagoing vessels known to the Semitic world, and the name eventually was applied to any large ocean-going vessel. Foreign maritime commerce was at least as orderly and nearly as complicated in ancient times as it is now.

Remember the Greek-North African connection mentioned earlier? Up to 30 C.E., the Greek shippers who operated the eastern trade routes for Mediterranean markets required three years for a round-trip voyage to India and back, following the tortuous coastline of Asia. About 30 C.E., an Alexandrian skipper named Hippalos discovered how to use the monsoon winds to cross the Indian Ocean in the space of only three months. He returned from India in less than a year, thereby revolutionizing the trade routes. Within a year upwards of 100 ships were setting out for India each season, to return to Egypt laden with silks, spices, and gems in return for Roman gold. Soon Ceylon and eastern India were added to the trade areas.(Cool

These and other similar voyages did not follow the tedious route of the continental coasts, but struck boldly across the continental waters. Monsoon trade winds were used, but what else did these ancient people know? In 239 B.C.E., Eurosthenes has calculated the circumference of the world as being about 28,000 miles, an error of excess of only 13 percent. The degree of latitude, then, was mistakenly thought to be some 69 nautical miles instead of 60 miles, its true value. This error was not so great as to forbid successful ocean crossings with a predicted landing point. Longitude was calculated by dead reckoning, a method that continued until long after the time of Columbus. For lack of a magnetic compass, bearings could not be taken in cloudy weather, but the stars and the sun and moon provided data at all other times. The astronomical observations were set into an early type of astrolabe, which, combined with the cross staff for measuring the elevation of the midday sun or other celestial objects at the time of their meridional passage, yielded a direct reading of latitude. By 150 B.C.E., a mechanical computer had been added to the navigational equipment, which could now perform the operations of an astrolabe merely by cranking bronze gears and matching dials.(9)

Maps of the constellations show that early voyagers were well aware of the fixed reference points in the heavens, the pole of rotation of the stars, even though in those days no bright star marked the position of the pole. It is a mistake to think that the so-called age of navigation (of Vasco da Gama and Bartolomeo Diaz and Christopher Columbus) was something entirely new, ushered in by the circumstance that around 1400 C.E. a bright star of the constellation Ursa Minor moved over the position of the pole as the earth’s axis slid in accordance with precession. As we now realize, ancient navigators knew always where the true pole was located, even when there was no polestar, and, after the third century B.C.E., we have maps showing the position of the celestial south pole also, proving that navigators were then crossing the equator in the southern parts of the Pacific Ocean.(10)

As to the relative sizes and strengths of ancient ships in comparison to those used by Columbus, medieval Europe of 1492 was in a state of nautical skill that the ancients, Barry Fell writes, would have regarded as benighted. Columbus’ whole expedition could mount only 88 men, carried on three vessels of which two were only 50 feet in length, about the size of a small Boston fishing boat. Contrast that with the Pharaohs of the Ramesside dynasty, 1200 B.C.E., who could mount expeditions of 10,000 miners across the Indian Ocean to the gold-bearing lands of South Africa and Sumatra. Julius Caesar’s triremes carried 200 men, yet he found his ships outmatched in size, height, and seaworthiness by those of the maritime Celts of Europe.(11)

In Book III of Caesar’s De Bello Gallico , he describes the greatest naval battle he was ever called upon to mount. His adversaries were none other than the Celts of Brittany, whose fleet was swelled by the arrival of a flotilla they had summoned from their allies in Britain. The combined Gallic and British naval armament comprised an immensely powerful force, numbering,
so Caesar tells us, no less than 220 ships, all larger than and superior in construction to those of the opposing Roman navy under Admiral Brutus.
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 10:31 am

These Celtic ships, says Caesar, were so soundly constructed that they could outride tempestuous or contrary winds upon the very ocean itself without sustaining injury. It is clear that these fine vessels, which towered over the Roman galleys, had the capability of crossing the Atlantic Ocean, “upon the vast open sea,” as Caesar indicates.(12)

The Phoenician ships were superior even to these Celtic ships. Fell relates how in the First Punic War (260-242 B.C.E.) each Carthaginian ship of the line was a quinquireme. These ships were so large that 5 rowers to each oar were required because of the length of the oar to reach the sea. There were 50 or more oars. These rowers, with officers plus 120 marines, made a complement of 400 men. In this war, 334 Carthaginian ships were lost.

Sea trade was started by the Phoenicians as early as the twelfth century B.C.E. By 900 B.C.E., they had established a wealthy and secure string of colonies in the Mediterranean ranging from Malta to the Iberian Peninsula. By 500 B.C.E., Carthage had obtained complete control of the western Mediterranean and destroyed the Greek strongholds in Spain. For the next few centuries up until the Punic Wars, when Carthage was destroyed by the emerging Roman Republic, these Carthaginian Phoenicians prevented all vessels from sailing past the Strait of Gibraltar into the Atlantic Ocean.

Whether they themselves sailed into and across the oceans will be discussed in a later section. Now, though, is a good time to take a closer look at who the Phoenicians really were. Let’s start with a question. Was “the Canaanite...then in the land” (found in Genesis 12:6 and 13:7) a true descendant of the Canaan who was one of the four sons of Ham? Were they the same in Genesis 9:25, where old father Noah said, “Cursed be Canaan, a servant of servants of ‘God’ (‘slave of slaves’ or ‘lowest of slaves’ in Hebrew) shall he be unto his brethren”?

If they were the same, it is incongruous with other scriptures, with archaeology, and with history. The “so-called” Canaanites of the Levant (the Phoenicians) were heirs of a colonial empire such as is only befitting the seven 12-tribed nations of Genesis. Does this sound like “lowly slaves”? Archaeology has revealed that most of these Canaanites were virtually identical to the Israelites, both linguistically and culturally. There is no contradiction in the Holy Scriptures. Although Genesis specifies that Nahor spoke Aramaic, the Semitic dialect of Padan-Aram, there is no mention of any peculiarity in the speech of the Canaanites or that the patriarchs had any trouble in communicating with them. Both Jacob and Laban spoke like the people of
their respective homelands, with no difficulty in understanding.

Although certain Canaanites were dispossessed by Israel, other Canaanites themselves were great supplanters. These Canaanites were called Phoenicians by the Greeks, a word mentioned previously to mean “blood red,” which probably was
a reference to the purple cloth the Phoenicians exported to other nations. It might even have referred to the color of their skin, which is definitely red-tinted even today (Phoenicians being sons of Esau, or, basically, the modern Turks, among others).

The Phoenicians were a technologically advanced people. In Ezekiel 28:3-5, the Eternal tells one of their princes, “Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel; there is no secret that they can hide from thee: with thy wisdom and with thine understanding thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy treasures: by thy great wisdom and by thy traffic hast thou increased thy riches, and thine heart is lifted up because of thy riches...."

The Phoenicians were the greatest seafaring merchants of the ancient world. Solomon employed their ships and seamen in his navy and used their technical expertise in building the Temple. They had circumnavigated Africa, had sailed (on open seas) to
Britain and Scandinavia, and, we will find out later in this paper, had sailed to America.

They colonized the Mediterranean, including Carthage, and even challenged Rome for world supremacy. We’ve mentioned already their introducing the alphabet to Europe.

Classical authors believed the Phoenicians were immigrants in the Levant. Herodotus reported their coming from the Erythraean Sea, a broad term including the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea. The Roman historian Justin said they had abandoned their original country because of a great earthquake, settling first near the Sea of Galilee and afterwards on the Mediterranean coast. Some modem historians believe they were made up largely of Semitic emigrants from the Sinai and regions about ancient Edom. Phoenicia and Edom have the same meaning. Both mean “red.”

The Holy Scriptures single out two peoples as being proverbial for their wisdom, the Phoenicians of Tyre in Ezekiel 28:3,12 and Isaiah 23:8; the Temanite Edomites in Jeremiah 49:7, Job 2:11, 22:1, and Obadiah 9.

Melkart, the god of Tyre, was a great hunter, just as Esau had been. Mainland Tyre even bore the name “Ushu,” a name linked to Esau. Eusebius preserved a Phoenician myth of the origin of Tyre. It is the legend of two brothers, Samemroumos, whose name mean “exalted by heaven,” and “Ousoos,” who some believe to personify mainland Tyre (called “Ushu”). Ousoos was a successful hunter. He quarreled with his brother and was thereby forced to seek his fortunes at sea, thus accounting for the Phoenicians’ mastery of the ocean.(13)

When Jacob stole Esau’s birthright, both were blessed by old blind Isaac, although some modern scholars tell us that Esau received no blessing, but rather a curse. They interpret Genesis 27:39 as saying, "...away from the fatness of the earth. ..and away from the dew of heaven on high.” I don’t see that at all. Nor do any of the ancient writings ever translate Esau’s blessing as only a curse. Jewish tradition, too, has it as a blessing. The KJV doesn’t say “away from” but rather “shall be,” i.e., a blessing.

We find in Genesis 36:6-8 that although Esau had come into great wealth, he voluntarily decided to migrate, “from the face of his brother Jacob. For their riches were more than they might dwell together; and the land wherein they were strangers could not bear them because of their cattle. Thus dwelt Esau in Mount Seir: Esau is Edom.”

In Deuteronomy 2:4, the Eternal tells Israel, “I have given Mount Seir unto Esau for a possession.”

Numbers 20:17 points out that Mount Seir was blessed with “fields,” “vineyards,” and “wells.”

Jewish tradition anciently ascribed the supremacy of Greece and Rome to the blessing of Esau.(14)

With all the above, it appears the “Canaanites” that colonized the Mediterranean were the ones to fulfill the promise to Edom, not the son of Noah. Many of these Phoenicians did come to swell the population of certain regions of the Greco-Roman world, and they, with Dan, colonized parts of America, as we shall see later. “Away from the fatness of the earth” could
perhaps mean that they went to sea to become a great nautical power. In the same tenor, the things said about Dan, some even questioning whether he were a true Israelite tribe, or just a strange people adopted into the sonship of Israel, could have some meaning derived from the fact that he went to sea with these “Canaanites,” thereby forfeiting his proper kinship with his brothers.(15)
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 10:31 am


Dan, with the other Northern Israelite tribes, went into captivity and exile. A portion of Dan might have been exiled before the other Israelites. Part of Dan is to be identified with the Tribe of Dana in Irish tradition. These people went to Greece from the Middle Eastern region, then to Scandinavia, and from there to Ireland and Britain.

In Scandinavia during the Bronze Age, there existed a highly developed civilization, rich in metallurgical and gold products of a high standard, which produced articles of furniture and implements similar to, or identical with, those known from contemporary
Egypt, Phoenicia, and Mycenean Greece.

Irish legends speak of the Tribe of Dana (Tuatha De Danaan), who were renowned metallurgists and very scientifically adept. They arrived from the “northern isles” after some disaster. The Bronze Age civilization in Scandinavia had come to an end between 500 B.C.E. and 400 B.C.E. because of a sudden climatic change, accompanied by upheavals and foreign invasions. Its population dwindled and finally almost disappeared. Eventually it would be re-populated by newcomers who emerged from

The only “northern isles” to Ireland are those of Scandinavia. The Tribe of Dana had come from the region of Mount Lebanon, say these Irish sources, had sojourned in Greece, had been enslaved, fought with the “Philistines,” then fled north, after which it had come to Ireland. Welsh legends spoke also of the Children of Don, who paralleled the Tribe of Dana.

Remember the connection of Dan with Phoenicia? Israelites from Dan and Nephtali were interconnected with Tyre and with crafts for which Tyre had a reputation. The Phoenicians were experts in the production of bronze as were the Danites in the
northern Galilee. We know that Tyre (Phoenicia) had established a monopoly over the supply of tin to the Middle East. This tin was obtained from Tarshish (i.e., Spain and the British Isles).

Mentioned earlier, excavations at the site of Dan in northern Galilee showed the existence of a well developed metallurgical industry which concentrated on the production of bronze. Analysis of this bronze showed the existence of gold in some specimens, a characteristic of British tin. This indicates that the tin used in Dan (in Israel) came from Britain. An Assyrian inscription from 879 B.C.E. lists part of the booty taken from Phoenician cities and includes walrus-ivory. This walrus ivory undoubtedly came from Scandinavia.

Who were the Scythians? Different ancient writers spelled it in different ways: Scyth, Scot, Scotch, Sakai, Saka, Skuthai (Greek), and Scyth or Scythi (Latin). Strong’s Concordance #5521 is Heb. “Sukkah”- literally “dwellers in booths,” i.e., nomads or wanderers. The Feast of Booths/Succoth/Tabernacles is the only Holy day to be retained after the “restoration
of all things.” It was instituted to commemorate Israel’s wandering in the wilderness (Leviticus 23:40-43; Zechariah 14:16; also Genesis 33:17). Scythians were none other than Israelites.

The conclusion of the matter is that Phoenicia definitely was in Scandinavia, Dan was a part of Phoenicia, and wherever Phoenicia went, Dan went also. But there is even more evidence that Dan settled in Scandinavia.

The island of Cyprus was known as Yadnana, meaning “Isle of the Dananu.” “Dananu” was the Tribe of Dan. An area corresponding in the descriptions to Scandinavia had also been called “Keftiu,” or "Kaptara,” both words meaning Cyprus. Since the Danites were connected with Cyprus of the Mediterranean, they might (on this point alone) also have been on “Cyprus of the Atlantic Ocean," meaning in Scandinavia. Dan disappeared at anearly date. Scandinavian culture at that time
revealed the probable presence of a group hailing from the same Middle Eastern areas which the Danites had frequented shortly before. From this, we can surmise that these Danites (at least some of them) from the Mediterranean had migrated to
Scandinavia. Irish legends identify the Children of Dana with the Israelite Tribe of Dan. The Irish accounts exactly fit what archaeological research has revealed.

Another nail to hammer this point home is that the Assyrians, or their auxiliaries, conquered Scandinavia in about 700 B.C.E., and the Danites might have reached Scandinavia after or during that date. Scandinavian Bronze Age Civilization ended in about
500 B.C.E., about which time Dana from Scandinavia came to Ireland.(16)

The conclusions of Yair Davidy are that the Tribe of Dan had broken up into several entities, one of which occupied the area of southeast Turkey and the island of Cyprus. Dan, like the other north Israelite tribes, went into exile and a portion of Dan might have been exiled before the other Israelites. Part of Dan is to be identified with the Tribe of Dana in Irish tradition, who, it was said, from the Israelite Middle Eastern region went to Greece, then to Scandinavia, and from there to Ireland and Britain.

But there is more. Yair Davidy, in his book, The Tribes, says that a portion of the Tribe of Judah had been exiled with the other Ten Tribes. These particular Judaites (Jews) among the northern Ten Tribes are recognizable in the Jutes, who were
associated with Dan of Denmark. We do know that Denmark was once called Juteland. Where did this name come from? At one time, both the Danites and the Yadi of Judah ruled over the same subject people called Mooshki, later known as Muski, and who are identified with the Phrygians (in Anatolia, or Turkey, today). There were periods when both the Dananu and Yadi were ruled by the same monarch. At some stage, though, they separated and warred against each other, enlisting foreigners to help them.

The ultimate result was that both kingdoms were destroyed and the Yadi and the Dananu exiled. Centuries later the Jutes (from “Yadi”?) settled in Denmark, and a Danish tradition traced the Jutes to Judah and the Danes to Dan. The Danes of Denmark
traced their origin to Dan the Great, and in an early historical work, the Danes are attributed descent from Dan of Israel, and the Jutes (who accompanied the Danes) ascribed Judah as their forebear. Apparently so many Jutes were in Denmark (the
Cymbric Peninsula) that it became known as Juteland. In Northern European dialects and in Latin, variations on the names “Jute” (of Denmark) and “Judaean” (Jew from Judah) are sometimes interchangeable.(17)

In central northern Britain, Ptolemy records the city of Danum, and it was in this region that, after several centuries, Viking invaders from Denmark were destined to settle. In addition, the Tribe of Dana were amongst the early settlers of Ireland and came from the Israelite area of Lebanon, whence they were said to have gone to Greece and from there to the far north and from there to Ireland. The Irish claims regarding the Tribe of Dana are confirmed by archaeology. In Welsh versions, the Tribe of Dana are referred to as Sons of Don.(18)

Interestingly, the Tribe of Dan was represented by a snake (Genesis 49:17) and by a lion (Deuteronomy 33:22). Other symbols were a pair of scales (Genesis 49:16), an eagle, and a dragon. Many members of Dan settled in Denmark, in Ireland, in Wales, England, and the U.S.A., where 40-50 million people have Irish ancestry. The original Coat of Arms of Denmark depicts a lion. (“Dan is a lion’s whelp, he shall leap from Bashan” (Deuteronomy 33:22)). Denmark (literally “Mark of Dan”) was called Juteland at one time. Judah (the Jutes) was very prominent, along with the presence of other tribes, in Denmark. An
interesting sidelight is that the Germans conquered Denmark in WWII and ordered all the Jews to wear the star of David as an identifying sign. The king of Denmark then proceeded to put one on himself and ordered all his subjects to do the same. The symbol of a snake was once worshipped in Ireland; Denmark (as mentioned) and England are represented by a lion; Wales has a dragon on its flag, and the U.S.A. has an eagle.(19)

The Coat of Arms of Iceland, historically associated with Norway and Denmark, includes a dragon, a vulture (which in Hebrew is given the same name as an eagle, “nesher”), a bull (which is a symbol of Joseph), and a giant (which might
represent Dan and Samson, the national hero of Dan) (Davidy, p. 210).

Another interesting sidelight, and perhaps a “proof” in and of itself, is the camping order of the Israelite tribes in the Wilderness. In The Tribes, Yair Davidy has an entire chapter on “The Order of Encampment in the Wilderness and Its Historical Significance.” He makes the point that some significance can be made from the tribal associations, which associations were commanded of them by the Eternal, even from the beginning of their forty-year sojourn in the Exodus from Egypt. The point has been made earlier that some Danites probably left before the main part of Israel was enslaved, who themselves were later released by their Egyptian overlords. The greater part, though, left with the others during the historical Exodus. Numbers 2 tells us that the tribes were encamped in a specified order around the Tabernacle while in the Wilderness. Similarly, they were to proceed in a specified marching order, with Judah going first and Dan bringing up the rear (Numbers 10)(20)

The camping order divided the twelve tribes into four groups of three, with the camping alignment having some parallelism to the familial order of Jacob and his wives. He asserts, and I agree that he makes a good point of it, that this might be a clue to their whereabouts in modem times, since their “required” association would have established an affinity for one another not broken by future events. The last grouping of three is that dominated by Dan, his other neighbours being Asher (Scots of today) and Naphtali (the Norwegians). Among all the other peoples and nations that Dan might have become (or greatly influenced), are the Danes. Naphtali became the Nephtali who migrated to Norway. Both Denmark and Norway produced the Vikings, who invaded and settled in northern England in an area previously belonging to the Angles and Varin (Vandals) and before them, to the Brigantes. (My note: both Dan and Naphtali were sons of Bilhah (Genesis 30:4-Cool). He continues his line of thought by saying the Anglo-Brigantian inhabitants of northern Britain were most likely from the Tribe of Asher (called “Aseir”).

These Aseir were considered ancestral gods by the Scandinavians, including those of Norway and Denmark. This same camping (living) alliance that had been theirs in the Wilderness, then, was retained in Scandinavia and in northern England.(21)

Briefly, the Naphtalites became divided by time, but the greater bulk went westward and became the Vikings of Scandinavia, especially of Norway. What about Sweden?

“It was from Odin’s army, known as the ‘Svear,’ that Sweden takes its name. In their own language, the Swedes call their country ‘Sverige,’ — the ‘land of the Svear.’ The date of Odin is given variously as between C.E. 200 and 300. In the Herald’s College, London, there is a very ancient manuscript deducing the Saxon kings from Adam and from David. Odin is listed in the genealogy (as is also his wife, Frea) tracing the Royal House of Britain back to David.” Let it be understood that I have not gone into the detail that Yair Davidy has gone into, to wit, the names of the sons of Dan in the Bible being associated with peoples that invariably were, and still are, associated with Dan in the countries of Scandinavia and Ireland mentioned above. This includes names of tribes, place names, symbols, etc.

Before closing this section, one other point should be made. Whenever the Bible mentions “the Isles,” many of us have, in the past, believed them to be the British Isles. Psalms 72:10, for example, says, “The Kings of Tarshish and of the Isles...” Talmudic commentators explain that the “Isles” are those in the “Oceanic Sea,” meaning the Atlantic Ocean. The Talmud infers, too, that “Tarshish” actually means the Atlantic Ocean. We know that historically Tarshish was located on the southwest coast of Spain, and outposts of it were located in Britain and Gaul.

‘Ships of Tarshish’ means primarily those plying the Atlantic Ocean and therefore the ‘Isles’ mentioned in association with Tarshish and Israelites are presumably those of Britain, America, and the coastline of Northwest Europe (Bold type mine) since the term ‘Isle’ in Hebrew sometimes may be extended to include places by thecoast. Even so, PRIMARILY — ‘EY’ in Hebrew means Land surrounded by water, i.e. an ‘isle’ or island.

“The term ‘Yarech’ in Hebrew means coastline whereas ‘ey’ nearly always means island. And Jeremiah uses the word ‘yerech’ coastline when speaking of the ‘North Country’ (Jeremiah 31:8-10). The expression ‘North Country’ could
apply to the whole of the Northwest European Coastline (including the British Isles) as well as to North America.”(22)

To the early oceanic travelers, the North Americancontinent would undoubtedly appear on maps as an “island.” That Scandinavia, whether the coastline only or the entire peninsula, would also be included in those prophecies concerning “the Isles,” seems conclusive. Later, the reader will see that North America’s being included definitely would seem to be a reasonable assumption.


(1) Ibid., p. 162.
(2) Ibid.
(3) Ibid., p. 163.
(4) Ibid., p. 187.
(5) Ibid.
(6) Ibid., p. 238.
(7) Ibid., p. 239.
(Cool Fell, Barry, America B.C., Wallaby Book, New York, 1976, p. 109.
(9) Ibid., p. 110.
(10) Ibid.
(11) Ibid.
(12) Ibid., p. 112.
(13) Most of the above is gleaned from Fell’s Saga America, a chapter entitled, “The Carthaginians in America,” and from
Davidy’s Lost Israelite Identity.
(14) Much of this regarding the blessings of Esau and Jacob is from a study paper by Noel Rude, entitled “The Ancient Near
East.” Rude is a linguist/scholar presently employed by the University of Mexico in Mexico City.
(15) Evidence keeps cropping up that Dan and Phoenicia (Esau) were separate entities. Although both went to every corner of
the world together, each could have maintained his uniqueness. This paper, however, is written from the viewpoint that the inter-mixing was intact, based on the greater amount of evidence that the writer has seen.
(16) Davidy, Lost, Chapter 10: “Dan in Cyprus,” pp. 205-212. See especially subtitles “Mycenea,” p. 206 and “The Bronze Age Civilisation of Scandinavia,” pp. 209-2 10.
(17) Davidy, The Tribes, p. 215
(18) Davidy, Lost, Chapter 15, “Hebrew Namesakes Amongst the Western Celts,” under subtitle, “Denas (of Wales) = Dan,” p. 301.
(19) Davidy, The Tribes, p. 209.
(20) Ibid., pp. 335-339.
(21) Ibid., p. 328
(22) Ibid., pp. 422-423
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 10:41 am



Walter W. Baucum

"If My people who are called by My name will humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land." - (II CHRONICLES 7:14)

We of United Hebrew Congregations believe that in order to understand who the Ancient of Days is and to understand His Plan for man we must understand who Israel is and where they are located in the earth today. We also believe that all the world needs to Quest for the knowledge of who He is. Why is it important to understand where the Hebrew Children of Israel are located? It is important because the prophecies of the Hebrew Scriptures (OT) are written primarily to or about these people. So what difference does that make? Simply that when the Calamities at the End of the Age (Tribulation or the Time of Jacob’s Trouble) begin to fall upon these people they need to know who they are, where they are mentioned in Scriptures, and why this is happening to them. The Hebrews consisted of twelve tribal nations that were taken into captivity by their enemies and ten of the tribes have not yet returned. To initiate the Quest for the Ancient of Days and the Lost Ten Tribes we will take the approach of tracing a single tribe in their many journeys over time. The tribe of Dan was prophesied to leave way marks along their trail and this is our attempt to follow that trail. We hope you enjoy the journey.

This is the third instalment of an article titled Tracing Dan published and copyrighted by United
Hebrew Congregations of Picayune, MS. and is reproduced with their kind permission.


So far, we have traced the Tribe of Dan to Greece, North Africa, and other parts of the ancient and modern world. Do Danites have any connection to the Celts, who settled in Europe and the British Isles? Believe it or not, we will begin this section not with people or tribes, but with language, the language of the Celts.

The Irish, Scottish, and Welsh, plus many of the ancient Britons and Gauls, spoke forms of Celtic. Celtic people apparently received the lndo-European aspects of their language and culture from peoples they had conquered on the continent before continuing their westward trek. Linguistic examinations of the speech of the Welsh and Irish reveal a form of Celtic in which there is an underlying speech element similar to that found in North Africa, which languages are classified as “Hamitic.” Both Egyptian and Berber are Hamitic tongues. They have a close affinity with Semitic languages, and local dialects in various parts of the Middle East occasionally exhibit Hamitic features. Aspects of Hamitic speech are found also in Biblical Hebrew, but they are not emphasized. Most of the ancient Canaanite peoples adopted a language similar to Hebrew, although both Indo-European and Hamitic languages also must have been known to them. The Phoenician use of Hebrew has characteristics of a foreign tongue adopted by them. There also exist Arabic dialects which are Hamitic or which reveal a Hamitic substratum. The difference between Hamitic and Semitic is more one of emphasis than of substance. Dialects of Hebrew within the land of Israel could well have absorbed Hamitic elements.

Note that the Hamito-Semitic languages are designated such because they encompassed, besides Semitic, languages such as Egyptian and Cushitic, languages that are mistakenly believed to have originated with Ham. But not so. Ham must be made responsible for the myriad other language families not related to Semitic in Sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere in the world.

Insular British Celtic tongues, especially colloquial Welsh, show certain peculiarities which are reminiscent of Hamitic and Semitic tongues and are unparalleled in Aryan languages.

Irish has as many features in common with non-Indo-European languages, especially with Hamito-Semitic languages, as with other Indo-European languages.

Certain features of Old Irish verb forms can be understood only in the light of Hittite, Vedic, Sanskrit, and Mycenean Greek. (Hittites were a Canaanite nation.)

The pre-Aryan idioms which still live in Welsh and Irish were derived from a language allied to Egyptian tongues.

(Most of the above are quotes by Yair Davidy in Lost Israelite Identity, from Kashani, Markus, Worrell, Wagner, Rolleston, and Mazar (See Bibliography for their works used by Yair Davidy)). The conclusion is that the original tongue of the Insular Celts was Semitic (Hebrew), which marginally was influenced by Mycenean Greek, Hittite, Indo-European (Sanskrit), Syrian, Mitanni, and some few others.(1)

The point that Davidy makes from all this is that the natives of Ireland and Wales undoubtedly used a Hamitic and/or Semitic tongue before they came into contact with Continental Indo-European ones. This is a proof, then, to the objective reader, that the Celtic peoples of Europe originally spoke Hebrew. It must be understood that the Israelites, in their places of exile, were divided and scattered and, to a certain degree, had to accept the cultural and linguistic standards of those around them.

Like early Greek, the earliest forms of Hebrew could be written from left to right or from right to left. Early Greek, remember, was a form of the Phoenician script. The Greeks are believed to have adopted the Phoenician alphabet after 700 B.C.E., i.e., after the Ten Tribes were exiled in 740-720 B.C.E. The Greeks may have received the alphabet from the Ten Tribes.

The Romans (including Julius Caesar) reported that the Gauls wrote in Greek and it is claimed that Greek inscriptions have been found in Gaul. An earlier use of Phoenician may have led to the employment of Greek since Greek lettering was really only a form of Phoenician.

Runic letters (Scandinavian-Viking) are mainly similar to Phoenician ones, but mirror (reversed) images. It too could be written from right to left or left to right. Some claim this script began around 600 B.C.E. on the northern shores of the Black Sea, which would be consistent with the Israelite origins of those who first used it.

The western Celts employed a style of writing called Ogam (sometimes “Ogham”), which is based on straight lines etched in stone in different formations, each of which represents a letter. (More on this later when we get to Barry Fell.)(2)

Barry Fell reminds us that the Arabs were in North Africa almost 1200 years before they re-invaded it under the Islamic hordes. He translated a stele with both Arabic and the North African language on it, calling the North African “Tifinag.” It is identical to an earlier Scandinavian language, but although the written language is the same, the dialects were different.(3) An analogy of this is the Chinese language. There are fifty-two different dialects in China, not one group able to understand the dialect of the other groups. But there is only one written language, which all fifty-two Chinese dialects can read. Even today, American English and British English are becoming so different in the oral speaking that we will probably need translators to understand one another in a couple of decades. But the written English has changed very little.

The language closest to ancient Hebrew today is Welsh, in many cases identical. (See “The Hebrew-Welsh Connection” after this chapter.) Davidy mentions that the Rev. Eliezer Williams (b. 1754) wrote several works on the Celts and made several remarks (quoted by Roberts p. 23) that pertain to this.

“In the Hebrew ... which the ancient British language greatly resembles ... the roots of most of the ancient British, or real Welsh, words may be regularly traced in the Hebrew. Scarcely a Hebrew root can be discovered that has not its corresponding derivative in the ancient British language ... but not only ... the words ... their variations and inflections afford a much stronger proof of affinity ... the plural number of nouns likewise is often formed in a similar manner in the Celtic by adding in (a contraction of IM which is the suffix used in Hebrew to form the masculine plural) ... in theformation of sentences, and in the government of words ... the same syntax might serve for both..."

“Davies in Mythology of the Ancient Druids (p. 94) asserts that ‘Taleisin, the chief Bard, declares that his lore had been detailed in Hebraic ...“‘

“It follows from all the above that though the language of the British Celts may have superficially conformed to an Indo-European type it had enough Semitic and Hebraic features to confirm the notion that Hebrew had been their original tongue.”(4)

We have seen the affiliation of Dan with Wales, Ireland, Britain, Scandinavia, North Africa, and Greece. But Dan was intermingled also with other Israelite tribes and helped settle West Europe, as well as Scandinavia and Great Britain, as we have seen earlier. These people came to be called Celts and are today the West Europeans, what is left of the British Empire, and America. We will start, then, with a people called Cimmerians.

Exiled Israel was called “Khumri” by their Assyrian captors. They also were called Gimir or Gomer. The term “Gimiri” in Babylon meant “tribes.” The similar sounding “gamira” denoted mobility and hints at nomadism, or exile, or both. The Scythians also were called Gimiri, meaning Cimmerian. The Cimmerians first appeared on the fringes of the Assyrian Empire in the Middle East. Yair Davidy goes into lengthy detail about the Israelites serving in the Assyrian armies as mercenaries, with their own Israelite leaders, but time and space do not allow this study to trace them. Solomon himself started what we today term “cavalry” fighting, with Israelites first using it and continuing it into modern times, right up to and including WWI, (the United States and the British Commonwealth being Israel). I Kings 4:26 says that King Solomon had kept “Forty thousand stalls of horses for his chariots and twelve thousand horsemen.” I Kings 10:28 tells us, “The source of Solomon’s horses was from Mitsrayim (i.e., Musasir) and from Que, the merchants of the king would take them from Que at a price.” (Note that although the KJV translates “Mitsrayim” as “Egypt,” the “Mutsri” of the north in Assyrian inscriptions is often taken to be Cappadocia (pronounced Cappa dok ia) on the Black Sea shore of the Pontus to the northwest of Assyria and Urartu (in present-day Turkey). The term also was applicable to Musasir to the north of Assyria between Mannae and Urartu.)(5)
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 10:42 am

These mercenary cavalry men helped expand the Assyrian Empire to what it finally became. In 679 B.C.E., a group of Cimmerians led by Teushpa was defeated by the Assyrians. A document discovered at Nineveh mentioned “Ubru-Harran, chief of a Cimmerian detachment,” serving in the Assyrian forces. The name “Ubru-Harran” is West Semitic and probably Hebrew (Note “Ubru”). The Mesopotamians from Tiglathpileser III on, and later the neo-Babylonian armies, were equipped with “Cimmerian” bows, “Cimmerian” arrows, “Cimmerian” horse harness parts, and even “Cimmerian” footwear.(6)

A side note here concerning Israel’s independence. Assurbanipal reigned in Assyria from 669-663 B.C.E. It was during his reign that the Israelite Scythians eventually took control of the Assyrian Empire. Some, including the present writer, assume that the Israelite captives already might have been given their independence by the Assyrians. The Cimmerians first became known in the land later called “Iberia” (which name also implies “Hebrew”), where legends relate that the Lost Ten Tribes had been taken, and which name followed them into Europe (Note the “Iberic” Peninsula of present-day Spain and Portugal). It was very soon, almost immediately, that these Clmmerians had first appeared after the Israelites were exiled. Their very name might be a form of “Khumri,” which appellation the Assyrians themselves applied to Israel. They were destined to advance into Europe, where they overran the Halstatt civilization.

From the Middle East, then, these Cimmerians moved into Europe by way of the Balkans and the Danube Valley. They became an important factor in the formation of the “Celtic” peoples, as were the Cimmerian-related Scyths. Parts of the Cimmerians, the Scyths, and the Goths (both of whom had been part of the Cimmerians originally) gave rise to the Anglo-Saxon, Frank, Scandinavian, and related people.

This is covered in considerable detail by Capt in his description of the Behistun Rock. But just two direct quotes will be included here:

“Tacitus and Pliny, supported by modern archaeological research, state that all the tribes dwelling along the North Sea Coast from Holland to Denmark were a single ethnic group which they called ‘Ingaevones.’ From this we may conclude that the historical Frisians, Chauci and Cimbri (mentioned by early historians) were of one stock; not only of Cimmerian but originally of Israelitish origin (Italics mine). Archaeology indicates that these people first arrived on the shores of the North Sea about 300-250 B.C.”(7)

“Acts 16:6 is written to a race of the Celts (Cimmerian Israelites), having conquered Phrygia (West Turkey) and giving their name of ‘Galatia’ to North Turkey, called 'Asia’ in the New Testament.”(Cool

Hosea prophesied that the different Cimmerian groups would either unite with each other or at least become allies. Hosea predicted also that the exiled Northern Israelites would lose remembrance of their Hebrew identity. Both of these things have happened. Although they, together with “Gomer,” were destined to bring forth distinct polities, eventually they are prophesied to return to themselves. From about 1200 B.C.E., the Urnfield Culture had dominated central and western Europe. (“Urnfield culture preceded Halstatt, the Urnfield peoples were mixed Orientals and ‘Indo-Europeans,’ and they were to give the Cimmerian dominated iron-using civilisation of Halstatt its European flavour. The early ‘Cimmerians’ themselves we believed to have been largely of Israelite origin. The centres of Halstatt civillsation for a while were in south Germany and from there apparently emerged the Celtic language in its Indo-European dress.”)(9) Out of this, we are told, the Halstatt civilization developed. Although in disagreement as to when this change occurred, most historians today generally accept 700 B.C.E. What caused it? Answer: groups of conquerors from the East identified as Cimmerian. They appeared first in Hungary, then westward to the southern parts of the North Alpine province. Bronze horse bits and bridle mounts, closely related in form to types found on the Pontic steppes in Caucasia all the way to Iran, and which of a certainty are an identification of the Israelite “cavalry,” have been found in this area. These horsemen had far-flung connections over the steppes where these Israelite and Cimmerian exiles had been involved. Powell (p. 41) says, “...their contribution was a stimulus in things martial and in improved horse management, and they may even have been veteran mercenaries from the armies of Assyria and Urartu.” (10)

The initiators of Halstatt brought a superior knowledge of metallurgy, of iron production, and mining. Rapoport (p. 105), as quoted by Yair Davidy, says, “The Assyrians used iron ore on a lavish scale, and weapons, tools, and 150 tons of unworked iron were found in the palace of Sargon II. Sennacherib carried off the smiths of Babylon and Nebuchadnessar those of Jerusalem.” (11)

Jewish smiths are said to have dominated the metal craft in Assyria, Babylon, and Ethiopia. In the case of Assyria, it was actually exiled Israelites from the Ten Tribes (rather than Jewish) metallurgists who were responsible for technological innovations, and every place in western Europe where the Israelites later migrated to they brought their metallurgical expertise with them.(2)

Among other things, these newcomers introduced an increased social hierarchy, more war-like characteristics of the richer graves, greater use of the horse by the upper classes, and burial by inhumation rather than cremation, which the previous Urnfield culture had practiced.

Piggott noted “... how Asia Minor, Syria, and the far-off kingdom of Urartu round Lake Van contributed to the toreutic art (i.e., metal embossing) of prehistoric Europe.” He was referring mainly to the Halstatt period after 600 B.C.E. He noted both the Greek and Phoenician influences on this art.(13) Both of these, remember, were Danites or Danites mixed with Esau.

Cimmerian migrations can be traced from the Assyrian-dominated Middle East across Europe into Britain. They were noted for their equestrian specialties, as the exiled Israelites had been. Piggott says, “The Cimmerians have been invoked as an ultimate agent in the further adoption of cavalry from the seventh century onwards by the contemporary civilizations of antiquity.”(14)

“The Celts were believed to have come from the east and to have advanced via the Danube Valley. Welsh legend stated that their ancestors the Cymry had been led by Hu Gsadarn from Drephane opposite Byzantium (on the Bosporus) across the sea to Britain. Jewish tradition said that part of the Lost Ten Tribes had gone to Daphne of Antiochia which is identifiable with Drephane whence came the Cymry. This account accords with what is known concerning the Cimmerians and their Celtic offspring who arrived in Europe overland from the same direction and bearing essentially the same name and culture.

“In North Europe there appeared a people called CIMBRI and they as much as any other group are to be identified with the Cimmerians and Galatians of old. “The Cimbri were reported by the Romans in ca. 114 B.C.E. at which time they were moving along the Danube but assumedly had already based themselves in Scandinavia which the Romans considered their homeland and wherein place names testify to their presence. The Cimbrians carried a metal bull with them in their migrations. This was admittedly a pagan custom but one which Hebrews had practiced almost from the beginning. Archaeological research shows strong Thracian and Anatolian influences on the Danish Iron Age from this time which connects with the Cimbri and paths of Cimmerian migration.

“When first reported of in 114 B.C.E. the Cimbri together with Teutons and Ambroni from the north and Tigoreni and Toygeni (both branches of the Helvetti) from Switzerland attacked the Romans. Their force numbered 300,000 plus. After inflicting several severe setbacks upon the Romans the Cimbri were finally defeated in 101 B.C.E. and almost annihilated. What survivors there were remained henceforth in the far north and Ptolemy noted their presence in northern Denmark. Other authorities spoke of Cimbri along the North Sea shores. Together with the Teutons they were presumably swept up by the Anglo-Saxon forces and participated in the invasion of Britain.

“Julius Caesar encountered the Suebi in about 50 B.C.E. These were a people who advancing from Germany attacked Gaul at a relatively early stage. They were precursors of the Angles, Saxons, and related groups, and “Sweafs” (i.e. Suebi) were later recorded in the Anglo-Saxon forces. One of the leaders of the Suebi, according to Caesar, was named “Cimbrius” (Julius Caesar “Gallic Wars” 1:37) and some type of link (based on cultural similarities) between the Cimbri and Suebi is believed to have existed. The Cimbri are similarly named to the Cymry of Britain who are recalled in British place names such as Humber and Cambria.

“Strabo (7.2.1) described the Cimbri as a ‘piratical and wandering folk’ and said that the Greeks had called the Cimbri, ‘Cimmerii,’ and had known them from the Crimea. Strabo, in effect, identified the Cimbrians with the Cimmerians of old.

“In Greek... ‘Nimrod’ is rendered ‘Nembrod,’ ‘Omri’ becomes 'Ambri', ‘Mesermeria’ becomes ‘Mesembria’. ..the transmutation of the name ‘Cimmerii’ (Cimmerian) into Cimbri was considered obvious and was remarked upon by Plutarch (Marius 11), Diodorus Siculus (5:32), Strabo (7), and Stephen Byzantius....

“Diodorus Siculus (32:4,7) linked the Cimmerians of old, the Galatians, and the Cimbri all together.

“Plutarch (in ‘Marius’) reported the opinion that the Cimmerians, Cimbri, and Scythians were in effect all members of the one nation whom he calls ‘Celto-Scythians.’

“Homer placed the Cimmerians in the British Isles as did a poem allegedly written ca. 500 B.C.E. by the Greek Orpheus.

“The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (891 C.E.) begins by saying that the Britons came from Armenia and the Picts (of Scotland) from the south of Scythia. The idea that the Scots came from Scythia is found in most legendary accounts and also in unedited versions of the Venerable Bede.

“The ideas expressed by ancient sources correspond with what is known today concerning the historical and archaeological background. The Cimmerians became the Cimbri of the north, the Cymry of Britain and the Galatians and other Celtic entities. There were Israelite tribes amongst them which therefore to a degree must have been identical with them. The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel are to be sought for amongst descendants of the Cimmerii and related peoples who settled in Western Europe and from there founded overseas ‘colonial’ settlements.”(15)
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 10:45 am

I have quoted Yair Davidy almost completely in the above passage. That he has done his homework, with its myriad proofs and direct quotes, cannot be denied by the open-minded individual. To wrap it up, about 650 B.C.E., Cimmerian Celts appeared in Halstatt areas, invaded Italy, and continued to Spain. They settled in Spain and were later re-inforced by La Tene Celtic elements.

In Spain these Cimmerian-Celts amalgamated with the Hiberi (Hebrews), who associated with Tarshish and who influenced their culture. These Hebrews had been transported overseas after the Assyrian conquest of Israel to Spain by Phoenicians in Assyrian employ. In the 500’s B.C.E., the combined Israelite Cimmerians-and-Hiberi (from Spain) were established on the Rhone in southern France. Then North African “lberians” and Carthaginians drove them out of Spain and northwards from the Rhone. These Celts who emerged from Spain are, roughly speaking, those who identified themselves as Hiberi and who were also known as Galatae, Hiberi derived from the word “Hebrew” and Galatae itself being a form of “Gilead,” who was a grandson of Manasseh and founder of an extremely important tribal clan of independent status amongst the Tribes of Israel, according to Yair Davidy.

Mr. Davidy goes more completely into place (and people) names in Europe, but a short summary from a section entitled, “The Hebrews of Britain,” will suffice to continue this particular “proof.” Of all the names associated with Israel in the Celtic world, perhaps “Eber,” meaning “Hebrew,” is the most important. We find it spread throughout Europe, especially in Britain. The early Celtic settlers in Britain referred to themselves as “Hiberi” (or “Iberi”) and are even named such by Ptolemy himself. In the country of the Parissi, the city of York was called “Eboracum” by the British. They called Ireland Hibernia; there were the Hebrides Islands, plus many places in Gaul and other Celtic areas whose names contained the root “eber.” Davidy quotes Bennett (p. 114),” ...there were twenty or more places in Wales, the names of which begin with another form of the name Eber, such as Aberystwyth and Aberdare. In Scotland we find Aberdeen, Aberfoyle, Aberdour, Aberargie, Abruthven, and several others.”

Even before the Christian era, when Celts were still “pagans” and not influenced by outside sources, the mythology and toponymy of the Celts were replete with Hebraic names. (Davidy goes into great length naming some of these.) When Spain was invaded by North Afncan peoples, driving out the Iberi there, these people came to be called Iberi by the Greeks and Romans. This later appellation of Spain is a misnomer.

We know too that the Celtic peoples such as the Gaelics of Britain and Ireland called themselves Iberi and their dominant presence in Britain is marked on Ptolemy’s maps of that day. Place names other than Britain containing the root Heber are multitudinous and include, besides those already mentioned, the following:

Ybora: mouth of Halys River inAnatolia (Turkey), place of a Galatian colony.

Hebros River: in Thrace, scene of Celtic presence.

Iberia: in the Caucasus, north of Assyria, legendary area of exiled Israelite tribes re. settlement, cultural connections with the proto-Celts.

Ibernia: name for Spain derived from the original Iberians who accepted Celtic culture and migrated to the west and north.

Hibernia: name for Ireland.

Iberni: in southwest Ireland.

Ibnerni Ocean: east of Ireland.

Hebrides: islands off the northwest coast of Scotland, a Celtic region. Menasseh ben Israel spoke of an early Hebrew inscription discovered on the Hebrides.

Eboracum: Celtic name for the city of York in north England. New York was given this name in the U.S. Today there are more people there of Jewish extraction than in the modern State of Israel.

Eburodunum: in the French Alps, Evorolucum in Auvergne, Gaul, and the list goes on.(16)

The Israelite peoples called themselves Hebrews (Jonah 1:9), “Hebrew” in the Bible being synonymous with Israelite. There were twelve Israelite tribes, and Welsh tradition listed twelve different peoples who invaded Britain, all who can be traced to Hebrew or Israelite names. Yair Davidy goes on in this section to say that representatives of all the tribes settled within the British Isles, but that the dominating elements belonged to the tribes of Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh). Much of Manasseh emigrated to North America. We have mentioned already the Danites in Ireland and Wales.

We need not continue, but the “proofs” as presented by Davidy, et. al., seem insurmountable. That Israel was taken into captivity by the Assyrians, used as mercenaries in the armies of Assyria, and transplanted to Spain and other areas of West Europe by Assyria, are just a matter of staring “truth” in the eye and acknowledging in the mind what the eye is seeing. The point here is that the Tribe of Dan was itself mixed in with these other Israelites and was also mixed in with the Carthaginians from North Africa. What we have is almost proof positive that all of these different groups— Cimmerians, Galatae, Cymry, Cimbri, Helvetti, Belgae, Brit-am, Halstatt, Iberi, Iberians, etc.- are either the same peoples coming in different waves and re-mixing, or at the very least, mixed in with other non-Israelite peoples who accepted the customs of the Israelites. I personally believe the former is closer to the truth. That intermarriage took place was inevitable. That much if not most of this intermarriage was among different Israelite tribes seems almost without doubt. That the Creator would keep the bloodlines more-or- less pure for a future purpose seems obvious. The reader will just have to accept or reject this. But to me, again, the evidence is overwhelming.

There are segments of Dan strewn all over the world, from Assyria and Parthia, Greece and North Africa, Spain and Scandinavia, Ireland and Wales, Britain and West Europe. Recently, I saw a PBS special on television about an area in West China (east of where Assyria was) that has white people with red hair buried there. The Chinese government gave special permission to some Westerners to exhume some of the bodies for study. They admit that these bodies are not Orientals. Some of Dan might even have gone eastward into China before reversing their direction and settling in Europe.

Where else did Dan go? The answer might be surprising.
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 10:45 am


Rather than including the following into other sections, or “chapters,” perhaps an entire and separate section should be given the Welsh being Hebrews. These Celts settled all over Europe and North America, but perhaps the closest living representatives of them are those who retreated to the fastness of Wales. Even to this day, they cling to their ancient language and traditions with patient tenacity.

We know that the Celtic lands of Ireland and Wales were never subdued by Roman armies. Today, it is widely taught that no trace of an original Celtic written language exists. There even exists among many a modern idea that the Irish were illiterate and that their history is all myth. This in itself is myth. The real myths regarding Irish history are generally limited to attempts on the part of the Roman Catholic Church to hide the identity of the racial descent of the Irish and other U.K. nations. But Barry Fell and others have found a deciphered Celtic language (Ogham) in the Book of Ballymote, today in the Irish Museum in Dublin. It is believed ancient Irish monks assembled it about eight hundred years ago. A collection of miscellaneous manuscripts, its last manuscript is the most interesting, being known as the “Ogham Tract,” and dealing with about seventy varieties of ancient Celtic script. But is Welsh really Hebrew, and, if so, what has it to do with Dan, about whom this entire paper is about?

Davidy himself believes that the language closest to ancient Hebrew today is Welsh. He mentions that the Rev. Eliezer Williams (b. 1754) wrote several works on the Celts and made several remarks (quoted by Roberts p. 23) that pertain to this.

“In the Hebrew. ..which the ancient British language greatly resembles... the roots of most of the ancient British, or real Welsh, words may be regularly traced in the Hebrew... ‘Scarcely a Hebrew root can be discovered that has not its corresponding derivative in the ancient British language... but not only.. .the words.. .their variations and inflections afford a much stronger proof of affinity...

The plural number of nouns likewise is often formed in a similar manner in the Celtic by adding in (a contraction of IM which is the suffix used in Hebrew to form the masculine plural). the formation of sentences, and in the government of words...the same syntax might serve for both.... “Davies in ‘Mythology of the Ancient Druids’ (p. 94) asserts that ‘Taleisin, the chief Bard, declares that his lore had been detailed in Hebraic...”’

“It follows from all the above that though the language of the British Celts may have superficially conformed to an Indo-European type it had enough Semitic and Hebraic features to confirm the notion that Hebrew had been the original tongue.”(17)

Briefly, and not already mentioned, Danite “Norsemen” in 835 invaded Ireland and built the city of Dublin, from a previously obscure village called Ath Cliath. In 853 Norsemen left Scandinavia under Rollo and invaded the north of France, giving their name (Normandy—a.k.a. “Northman’s land”) to it. These Norsemen (Danites mostly) who settled there became known as “Normans,” they adopted the French tongue and customs, and later they insinuated themselves on to England in 1066 (Battle of Hastings), ending the Saxon rule.

Forty years later, the English regained the Throne of England, invaded Normandy, and struggled for 100 years for possession of it. The French finally won. Continuing this “mini-history,” mostly from Capt,

“The Normans who remained in Britain gradually became absorbed into the peoples of Britain-they became English, Scots, Irish and Welsh. In considering the many conquests of Britain, first by the Anglo-Saxons from Germany, the Danes and Norsemen from Denmark and Scandinavia, and finally the Normans from France, one might imagine that the resulting population of the British Isles, including the original ancient Britains, would have produced a mongrel breed of several different races. Such, however, is not the case. The Normans were a branch of the Scythians who came from Scandinavia. They and the other invading peoples are all of one origin, Israelites of either the Scythian or the Cimmerian branch of the ancient (ga-me-ra-a-a) Gimira, the Assyrian name for Israelites. The Ancient Britons are also descended from the same stock-Hebrews that left Egypt before the Exodus or later from Palestine before the captivities of Israel (Bold is mine. We have seen already my belief that many of Dan left Egypt before the Egyptians enslaved the rest of the tribes.)

“Because of a greater adrnixture with non-Israel peoples (continuing quote from Capt), it is difficult to distinguish with certainty the ethnic origin of the individual peoples making up these nations. One can only generalize:

“The inhabitants of modern Hungary are descended from several sources. The early people were no doubt Scythians (Germanic). During historical times, this flatland between the Danube and the Tisza (Theiss) had experienced incessant human ebb and flow-Dacians, Goths, Vandals, Gepidae, and Huns. Nearly half of the present inhabitants are descendants of the Magyars, who came in from the Siberian steppes (at the beginning of the tenth century), and pushed into the heart of Germany and Italy. They suffered reverses and finally settled back into present-day Hungary. The Magyars, who were once subject to the Khazar kings, are recorded in modern history books as belonging, in origin and language, to the ‘Finno- Ugrian division of the Alpo-Carpathian stock.’ It is quite possible the Magyars contained a strong element of Scythians who allied themselves with them.”(18)

I included the last paragraph above to show an earlier belief that I had, that although we know for a surety that the West European peoples are Israelites, we cannot know beyond a doubt which particular modern European countries are which particular Israelite tribes because of these massive and continuing integrations. Yair Davidy’s The Tribes helped clear up this misunderstanding on my part, in that, although mixed considerably certain nations contain “more” of one tribe and “less” of others. Plus there exists the point of prophecy and promises given by The Eternal that indicates He (if no one else) knows who they are and will keep them “tribally” intact, at least until He regathers them into one place at a time yet to come. In addition The Eternal stated in Amos 9:9 referring to Israel,

“For surely I will command, And I will sift the house of Israel among all nations, As grain is sifted in a sieve; Yet not the smallest grain shall fall to the ground.”

A further consideration along this line of thought is that The Eternal not only knows the various distinctions, but might even have meant this mixture to be that way. Why? Because maybe He still looks on all of us Israelites as just that—one Tribe called Israel, which name He Himself gave to Jacob. I still have questions concerning this point at times. Even our own America, possessing the “birthright marks” of Joseph, can be identified as modern Manasseh, the thirteenth tribe. However, it is today peopled by a representation of all the other tribes of Israel, those of Germanic extraction even outnumbering those of British extraction.

To retract a little, the connection of Dan with Denmark is quite evident, among other ways, on the Coats-Of-Arms of Denmark. The original Coat of Arms depicts a lion (“Dan is a lion’s whelp, he shall leap from Bashan” (Deut. 33:22)). The Coat of Arms of Denmark represents, in most part, places it once ruled, such as Denmark, Schleswig, Sweden, the Faeroe Islands, Greenland, Gothland, and Vandalia. Its motto, “The Lord is a helper unto me,” is reminiscent of the cry of Jacob, “I have waited for thy salvation, 0 Eternal” (Gen. 49:17). This obviously is made in connection with the future fate of the Tribe of Dan. The present-day official shield includes giants with staffs (Dan, Hushim, Samson, probably), lions (Dan), a dragon (Dan), a bear (Reuben?), and a sheep (Joseph). The small National Arms are those of Denmark itself and depict lions, “Dan is a lion’s whelp” (Deut. 33:22). (19)

But what about Wales itself? The flag of Wales depicts a dragon, a symbol of Dan. Green is the national colour of Simeon in Rabbinical tradition, and green is the national colour of Ireland and, along with white, forms the background of the Welsh flag. Some of Simeon are in Wales, probably. Shaul, one of the sons of Simeon, became the Silures of south Wales. These were a fierce darkish people according to descriptions.

More on possible Danite-Welsh links will come in Part II.


(1) Much of the early part of this section is taken from Yair Davidy’s Lost Israelite Identity in a chapter entitled, ‘The Israelite and North African Links of the Insular Celts in the Light of Linguistics. The Question of Alphabetical Lettering ,‘ Ch.17, pp.336-343

(2) Ibid.

(3) Fell, Saga, p. 231 & Ch. 11, 'Arabs Before Islam’ pp.236-261

(4) Davidy, Lost, p.343

(5) Ibid., p.40

(6) Ibid., p.53

(7) Capt. E. Raymond, Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets, U..S.A. 1995, p.144

(Cool Ibid.

(9) Davidy, Lost, p.77 as quoted from Pounds, Norman J.G. An Historical Geography of Europe, Cambridge, U.K. 1973, p.46

(10) Ibid. p.72, Davidy quoting Powell, The Celts, London 1958, p.41

(11) Ibid., p.73

(12) Ibid.

(13) Ibid., p.75

(14) Ibid., pp.75-76, quoting Piggott, Stuart, Ancient Europe from the Beginnings of Agriculture to Classical Antiquity, Edinburgh, Scotland 1965, p.177

(15) Davidy, Lost, pp.81-83

(16) Ibid., pp.302-305

(17) Ibid., p.343, quoting Roberts, L.G.A., British History Traced from Egypt and Palestine, London 1972, p.23

(18) Capt. Op.cit., Missing, pp.184-185

(19) Davidy, The Tribes, p.209


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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 11:01 am



Walter W. Baucum

"If My people who are called by My name will humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land." - (II CHRONICLES 7:14)

We of United Hebrew Congregations believe that in order to understand who the Ancient of Days is and to understand His Plan for man we must understand who Israel is and where they are located in the earth today. We also believe that all the world needs to Quest for the knowledge of who He is. Why is it important to understand where the Hebrew Children of Israel are located? It is important because the prophecies of the Hebrew Scriptures (OT) are written primarily to or about these people. So what difference does that make? Simply that when the Calamities at the End of the Age (Tribulation or the Time of Jacob’s Trouble) begin to fall upon these people they need to know who they are, where they are mentioned in Scriptures, and why this is happening to them. The Hebrews consisted of twelve tribal nations that were taken into captivity by their enemies and ten of the tribes have not yet returned. To initiate the Quest for the Ancient of Days and the Lost Ten Tribes we will take the approach of tracing a single tribe in their many journeys over time. The tribe of Dan was prophesied to leave way marks along their trail and this is our attempt to follow that trail. We hope you enjoy the journey.

This is the first instalment of an article titled Tracing Dan published and copyrighted by United
Hebrew Congregations of Picayune, MS. and is reproduced with their kind permission.


“Send these the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door.” When Emma Lazarus penned these famous lines in 1903, she might have been reflecting an ongoing situation through much of recorded history. This is that America, for well over 2,000 years, has served as a place of refuge for Old World peoples driven from their homes by conquest or persecution.(1) Evidence abounds that many of these visitors to America were Israelites, Dan being just one tribe among them. A clay tablet found in a rock crevice near Big Bend, Texas, tells of Zoroastrians (followers of Mithraic sun woiship) who came once to America, probably from Iberia. Dr. Henriette Mertz, Professors Cyrus Gordon and Cyclone Covey, and Dr. Robert Stieglitz discovered an immigration to Tennessee and Kentucky of homeless Jews after the many pogroms of Antiochus in Syria and Nero and Hadrian in Rome. Some were here already when, in 69, during the First Revolt of Jerusalem against the Romans, others came over. Flavius Josephus, who himself took part in this revolt, mentions that through the year 69 a great comet hung like a flaming sword over Jerusalem. Some Zealots took it to be the sign of the coming of the promised Messiah and rebelled. Today we know that it was Halley’s Comet, making one of its many returns. A stone excavated from a burial mound at Bat Creek in Tennessee tells us that Jews in Tennessee recognized the sign and inscribed the stone “The Comet for the Jews.” This strongly suggests that Tennessee and Kentucky became havens of refuge for these persecuted Hebrews. A later influx of Jews came to the same place after the next, and last, revolt against Rome over a hundred years later. Hebrew shekels dating from the Second Revolt in 132 occur in many parts of Kentucky and a nearby district of Arkansas. Dr. Joseph Mahan is presently researching these matters in the language and traditions of the southeastern tribes. He also is investigating Hebrew religious ceremonies found among the Yuchi Indians there.(2)

At Los Lunas, near Albuquerque, is a version of the Ten Commandments engraved on rock and another similar inscription has been found on a stone tablet found in a burial mound at Newark, Ohio. These are ancient inscriptions using a north Canaanite script and old Hebrew language.(3)

These petroglyphs date to 800-900 B.C.E. and are in the Old Hebrew language and using a Phoenician alphabet.(4)

Note the date. This was in the times of King Solomon and the Phoenician King Hiram. The authors believe this region in New Mexico to have been the destination of the “Ships of Tarshish” in I Kings 10:22. The Old Hebrew language was not used by the Jews after the Babylonian exile. Aramaic replaced it. The old script was replaced in the last century B.C. E. by the quadratic script, which is still in use today. Rabbis, though, still understand the Old Hebrew, in which the first five books of Moses are written.

The Phoenician language and script had spread through the Mediterranean area by the turn of the first millennium B.C.E., was the basis of the Hebrew, Greek, and other alphabets, had been supplanted in the old Phoenician territory around Tyre and Sidon by the time of Alexander, but had remained dominant in Carthage (called Punic language) until the city’s destruction by Rome in 146 B.C.E. In other North African and American colonies of the Phoenician-Danites, the language remained in use until the 4th century C.E. Then it, along with Cuneiform writings and Egyptian hieroglyphs, vanished into oblivion. About 200 years ago the Phoenician script was deciphered.

The above authors wondered if the inscriptions were made by Jews (Israelites-probably Dan), who, together with Phoenicians, made long voyages for King Solomon. After an absence of three years, they delivered 420 talents of gold (1 Kings 9:28 and 10:22). The 420 talents would be about 11,000 kg. today with a value of about 100 million dollars. Nowhere in the Bible is there a clue to where “Ophir” is. The Phoenicians, we have learned, kept their trade routes a strict secret.(5)

The authors decided to investigate further, specifically to check out the assertions by sceptics that they were a Mormon fake. At the Mormon Pioneer Museum in Salt Lake City, they found no evidence of Mormons having been in the Los Lunas area, except for one instance. The “Mormon Battalion,” which was part of the U.S. Army during the Mexican War, marched from Santa Fe down the Rio Grande Valley. They read diaries of the soldiers, reading that the officers commanding the battalion maintained strict discipline, allowing none of their soldiers to leave the column. Also, a Professor Charles S. Peterson, Mormon history specialist, told them that in the 19th century, no Mormon would have been able to write such an inscription. Joseph Smith had studied Hebrew, but had been murdered before the Mormons’ trek to the West.

Another possibility might have been when the Romans destroyed Carthage. Punic sailors and other Israelites living there might have fled across the ocean to avoid the burning of their ships, which has been reported by Livius in his History of the Punic Wars.(6)

In 1558, a French churchman, the Abbe Amiot, became the literary sensation of Europe, having just discovered ancient Greek manuscripts by a historian named Plutarch in monastery libraries in Italy. In one segment of Plutarch, he discusses an ancient Carthaginian manuscript he says he found in the ruins of that city, one dealing with voyages across the Atlantic. The islands he mentioned perfectly fit the Orkneys, Shetlands, Faeroes, and Iceland (Ogygia). Then, he says, if you sail along this coast in a southward direction, you will pass a frozen sea and come to a land where Greeks have settled and intermarried with the native barbarians.(7) In analyses of Norse sailing routes, George Lechler pointed out that the southern part of Davis Strait, between Labrador and Greenland, becomes an impassable mass of floating ice during the summer season, when northern navigations could be performed. The land where the Greeks had settled and intermarried with the native barbarians, Nova Scotia and New England, lies in the position Plutarch gave, for he said they lay in the same latitudes as the Caspian Sea.

I won’t go into the prevalence of Greek roots of the Micmac language, but will remind the reader that many of the Greeks were Danite Israelites. Briefly, though, Barry Fell says the Greek of Micmac is more appropriately called Ptolemaic Greek, and it came to Nova Scotia and Maine from North Africa, where many Greek-speaking communities existed in Classical times.

In “Barry Fell and His Accomplishments,” we find that the ancient San Telmo Stone of Portugal, believed to have the oldest form of Basque writing on it, was unreadable until Fell deciphered it, using the Cree Indian alphabet of North America.(Cool

Plutarch records that the northern outward route followed by Carthaginian ships to America went by way of Iceland (Ogygia?), and the return route followed the anti-trade winds around latitude 40 degrees N. back to Spain and Carthage. Likely, many ships followed the outward route used later by Columbus, in tropical latitudes, thereby gaining the benefit of the westward-blowing trade winds. Diodorus of Sicily implies that this route was followed when he speaks of an island resembling Cuba that the Carthaginians discovered.

Barry Fell and others have found multiple evidence of Phoenicians in America. He and his colleagues visited the ancient sites of Carthaginian settlements in North Africa and Spain and the ruined cities of peoples who were allies of them, or whose mariners sailed on Carthaginian ships. They visited archaeologists and historians who work on Old World sites and discussed their American finds with them. Many of these came over to America to study the finds for themselves and to lend their skills.

Carthaginian coins have been found in the Azores and all over America. All have one characteristic in common. All belong to the earliest issues of Carthage, those of the fourth and early third centuries B.C.E. All are the work of highly skilled Greek artists.

According to legend, a horse’s head in the ground was the Oracle’s prediction of how the founders of Carthage would recognize the site destined for the city. It was used, with a palm tree, as the coat of arms of Carthage. Carved horse heads have been found in North Africa and America. A white limestone horse’s head was discovered in North Salem, New York, near stone chambers, both being quite ancient.

Symbols of the goddess Tanith (spouse of Baal) and related signs have been found on Carthaginian tombstones in North Africa and in Colorado, almost identical and being another symbol of Carthage. We have shown earlier how the Tribe of Esau became the Phoenicians and how Dan was intermingled with them; how their most famous ancient cities were Sidon and Tyre; how around 800 B.C.E. they established strong trading posts on the North African coast, west of Egypt and as far afield as Morocco and southern Spain; how one of their posts grew into the powerful Kharkhedona (called by the Greeks and Romans “Carthage”) located in a bay at the northern tip of Tunisia; how they traded in purple dye and cloth and were called “Phoinikoi,” (The Purple People) by the Greeks (and from which word we get our name, Phoenician) and Punici by the Romans, which means the same.
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 11:03 am

We usually restrict the use of the word “Punic” to serve as a synonym for Carthaginian and speak of them as using the “Punic” language.(9) They were famed mariners and established a complete monopoly on the tin trade, getting it from England and areas near the British Isles. They jealously protected their monopoly on it by blockading the Straits of Gibraltar so that no foreign vessel could leave or enter the Atlantic without their knowledge and permission.

Tin, remember, is used with copper to make bronze, which was in high demand by most of the Mediterranean world of that day. Tin was mined and smelted continuously in Cornwall from Bronze Age times onward, right through the Roman occupation and on through the Dark Ages and medieval times until the modern era. Because of the mixture of Danites with Phoenicians, wherever Phoenicians went, Dan went also.

Besides searching for tin and copper, other Old World peoples came for different reasons. Religious motives caused Egyptian equipped expeditions to be sent far and wide. Pharaoh Ramesses III, in his quest for immortality, sent out ships to find the celestial paradise, the Mountain of Manu, which supposedly lay in the far West. There is evidence to show that the ships reached Mexico during the 12th century B.C.E. and established the Olmec civilization, which in turn became the mother civilization of other American civilizations that followed.

Thor Heyerdahl, in the now-famous Ra-Expeditions, reported that the Palenque Pyramid in Mexico and the Egyptian pyramids are extraordinarily alike. In addition, he says, there was a priest king laid out in the coffin. “Its lid, and the walls of the tomb, were decorated with reliefs of human figures, some wearing false beards as a badge of rank, a custom duplicating an ancient Egyptian habit. Inside and outside, the sun king of Palenque had followed the ancient Egyptian formula for pyramid burial.”(10)

Concerning the density of foreign traffic along the navigable coastal and riverine waterways of North America, a map shows that the main arteries into the interior were the St. Lawrence downward and into the Great Lakes, the Mississippi River upward and eastward and westward, and the Snake-Columbia outward. Petroglyphs depicting ancient coins extend the range to the ancient equivalent of the Oregon Trail, extending across the prairies to Moneta in Wyoming (centre of the fur-trading centre in ancient America during Roman times, believed by Fell and others). Moneta lies near the North Pass in the Great Divide, making it as convenient in those days as the nineteenth-century Wyoming markets were for trappers and buyers of the Astor Fur Trading Company. This route also gave access to Nevada and Californian silver and, in the north, the Michigan copper mines linked both the upper Mississippi traders and the ships on the Great Lakes.(11)

Fell opines that many furs were taken across to the Snake River near Rexburg, Idaho, then on downriver to the Columbia and to its mouth in the Pacific. There, Arab traders in their ocean-going dhows picked them up and sold them to Asian and European markets, especially to the Romans. Tons of evidence seems to support this theory, but time and space will not permit it here. The fact is that over 22,000 deep-earth copper mines, found in Michigan alone, also tend to support Fell’s and others’ theories that the Phoenicians exploited America for centuries during its monopoly on the tin and copper trade. Amerindians did not dig deep mines to gather copper.

Everywhere they went along these river arteries, they left messages in the rocks for others coming after them. Having personally visited Wees Bar on a main trade artery, the Snake River, 25 miles below Boise, I have observed the highest concentration of petroglyphs in the state of Idaho. On one rock alone are engraved three different ancient languages: Arabic, Viking (runic), and Egyptian.

These written messages, with their proven alphabets, are called Great Basin Curvilinear by the ostrich archaeologists, many still believing them to be graffiti markings on rocks put there by bored Indians. Eventually, though, the inter-oceanic trade ceased.

“The conquest of Egypt by Darius I in 525 B.C.E. and the successive rise of the Greek and Roman empires effectively closed the eastern Mediterranean to Carthaginian shipping. Carthage retaliated by closing the Straits of Gibraltar to all European mariners. Under the guise of supposed Spanish and North African trade, Carthaginian merchants exploited the North Atlantic resources, bringing to Cadiz the copper of the Celtiberian settlements of North America, and the tin of Cornwall, to provide the raw materials of a bronze industry, whose products were re-exported to Britain, Gaul, North America, and West Africa.The Celts of New England obtained a share of the American imports by supplying furs and hides, both of which the Carthaginians re-exported to the eastern Mediterranean as supposed products of Gaul, the furs even reaching India. By the time the Romans conquered Spain and Carthage, they had adequate alternate sources of these materials, and they took no interest in overseas shipping, having no merchant navy. The North American trade dwindled, the last phases presumably being operated by the maritime Celts of Brittany until their conquest by Caesar in 55 B.C.E. For 400 years after the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C.E., the Romans had no navy, since they had no rivals, and the memory of America apparently was lost. By C.E. 200, geographers believed that a voyage westward from Spain would lead to India and China, and this was the inheritance of Columbus.”(12)

There are definite indications of North African influences on the Algonkin “Indians” of North America. Fell notes that the Kyrie eleison (Lord have mercy) on a Kikapoo prayer stick preserved in the Smithsonian Institution appears three times written in Carthaginian (Semitic) letters and language. The omission of “Christ have mercy” suggested to Fell that this might be a pre-Christian formulation.

George Carter discusses cowry shells from the Mediterranean among the Objibwa. “What is indicated is some important contact with the Mediterranean, and more specifically with North Africa....”

“...Jackson reporting that the same shell is used in the same way in West African society.”

“...when it is found that Cyprea moneta was found in an Adena mound.”(13)

The Adena were builders of great mounds that were earlier and different from the so-called temple mounds of the Southeastern United States. Alphabetic inscriptions, i.e., the Grave Creek Mound inscription of probable Libyan (Northwest African) origin, as well as other traits, suggest Old World connections for this Adena culture.

Linguists had classified the speech of the Atakapa, Tunica, and Chitimacha tribes of Southern Louisiana, Southern and Delta Mississippi, and Southeast Texas as unique, having no known relationship with any known language. Fell researched this thoroughly. “But my examination of the vocabulary, particularly that of the Atakapa, since it is better known than the other two, disclosed an all embracing affinity with the known languages of ancient Egypt and the peoples of the adjacent sections of the Nile Valley.”

Continuing, Fell says that whenever an Egyptian expedition to foreign lands was imminent, the Pharoah would initiate a massive slave raid on the black tribes of the Upper Nile to provide laborers and mariners. The speech of these tribes would indicate just such a scenario if Egypt had established a trading outpost in the Lower Mississippi in ancient times, and if the members had either been abandoned or had of their own volition remained behind. He believes such a small colony could have survived only by merging with local Indians to produce a mestizo population, speaking a tongue derived from the several different contributory dialects.

Their vocabulary is seen to span elements of virtually every aspect of life in a society such as an Egyptian-led trading community in the New World 2,000 years ago. The language includes elements of Memphitic (lower Nile), Thebaic, Nubian (Blue Nile), Nuer (White Nile), and Luganda and Nandi (area around Lake Victoria).(14)
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 11:04 am


In a chapter entitled, “America and the Punic Wars,” Barry Fell makes a good case of America’s involvement in the three Punic wars Phoenicia fought with Rome. The dates of the Carthaginian coinage being found all over America match the sudden influx of gold in Carthage. While the initial issues of this coinage was silver, the nature of the coinage underwent a sudden and dramatic change around 300 B.C.E., when very large quantities of gold coins began to be minted. It actually was mostly gold, mixed with small amounts of silver, and which coins were called “electrum” by the ancients. Phoenician-made (or they had them made - many being traced to the workshops of Cyprus as the most-likely origins of many of these) art objects were undoubtedly held in high esteem by Amerindians, for many have been found in North and Central America.

Fell further suggests that these art artifacts were offered for barter at landing points in Panama or the Caribbean coast of Colombia or Venezuela and were traded for gold. Gold was not highly regarded over here, save as a metal easy to work into complicated jewelry or cast or hammered into figurines. Nevertheless, the dates of Carthaginian contact with North America, yielded by the coinage now being recovered so massively, match the sudden influx of gold in Carthage.(15)

So Fell proposes that an American source for the Carthaginian gold coinage should seriously be considered, and that the gold was bartered for the bronze art manufactures of the Cypriot Phoenicians. He further proposes the source of the pine lumber which built the great fleets of Carthage, and whose supply suddenly dried up at the end of the First Punic War in 241 B.C.E. Along with the bronze art replica-gold trade going on, the Phoenician ships also picked up shipments of large pine logs from the Algonquian tribes of Northeastern North America, to whom they traded adequate stocks of iron cutting-tools, axes, and other desirable items. This included occasional bronze art replicas, since so many have been found in New York and other places, low-value Carthaginian coins of attractive appearance, glass beads, and so on. Such trade, profitable alike to the Amerindian and the Carthaginian, would result in a steady input of gold and lumber on the home markets in Carthage, would yield the timbers needed to build ships, and would provide them with straight masts and oars, plus the gold ingots required to produce the coinage that financed the military and naval operations of the Sicilian War and later the First Punic War.

Barry Fell goes much deeper into this than I will, including an excellent argument for their ships picking up gold in Central and northern South America, then swinging up to Maine and other northeast states in North America to pick up pine timbers for ballast as these ships carried both across the Atlantic. Archaeologists are quick to point out that all the coinage and bronze artifacts and pottery, etc. are forgeries. But archaeologists continue their tendency to call anything they do not understand a “forgery.” Many of them still call the Ogam, runic, Tifinag, and other writings on stones in America marks made by the plowshares of early Pilgrims or etchings made by tree roots growing down Into the ground.(16) (Bold is mine throughout)

Not only were Plutarch’s writings confirmed by the American examples of Carthaginian coinage and trade goods, but in his continuing investigation, Mr. Fell became further convinced that Plutarch was speaking the truth when he said that Greeks had settled among the barbarian peoples of the Western Epeiros (the continent that rims the Western Ocean, as Plutarch called it-we call it America). He says these Greeks had intermarried with these barbarians, had adopted their language, and had blended their own Greek language with it. The Greek settlements were about a bay in the same latitudes as the Caspian Sea, indicating New England, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.(17)

“Plutarch was writing at the beginning of the second century C.E. At that time, the world had long been known to be a globe (My note: this was forgotten during the “Dark Ages,” when knowledge, education, and books were forbidden the common people in Europe and many began believing the world was flat), and lines of latitude and longitude had been invented back in the third century C.E. by the North African mathematician-geographer-astronomer Eratosthenes. Because of the depth of ignorance into which Europe fell in the Dark Ages, at times we are apt to forget how advanced were the ideas of the ancients, and how much they knew about the earth and about astronomy and navigation.”(18)

Now a note to the reader. In an earlier section, “Dan in Greece,” I included some interesting information and conclusions. First of all, the Greeks of Europe said nothing about Plutarch’s comments. Secondly, since it was the Greeks of North Africa who took the path of science leading to the discovery that the earth was a globe, and who set about mapping the globe, I agree, along with Fell and others, that the Greeks of the American Epeiros would have to be North African Greeks. Plutarch regarded these Greeks as a people now considerably different from the Greeks of Greece. They called themselves Greeks, but (according to Polybius) were olive-skinned and were a fusion of Greek and North African (European, Arab, and Berber, according to Barry Fell - European Danites, Phoenician Danites, and Berber Danites, according to me). They were, then, Libyans. These people lived in a 2,000 mile stretch along the North African coast east of Egypt, encompassing today’s Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco.

This olive-skinned “mixed” race of people were totally different from the Aethiopes, the dark-skinned Africans whose homeland lay to the south of the Sahara Desert. Neither then, nor today, were the Mediterranean African people part of the Black race. How they loved the sea, how their white marble and limestone cities gleamed in the desert sun, how they conquered and ruled in Egypt for two centuries, how Egypt became a great maritime power under them, how the name Shishonq (carried by at least four Libyan pharaohs) has been found in American inscriptions, how they were a noble civilization - these have been mentioned already. (See “Dan in Greece”)

Time does not permit our “recreating the wheel” by showing the labyrinth patterns, derived from the religious art of Knossos, in Crete, and with occurrences in the Mediterranean, Britain, Scandinavia, and North and South America; the “Plutarch’s Greek” vocabulary among such tribes as the northeastern Algonquians and including words of Coptic and Arabic derivation as well as recognizable Greek elements detected by Silas Rand over a century ago when he compiled the Micmac dictionary; identical (and similar) pottery decorations in Arizona and Greek Mediterranean sites (long after these styles had passed out of fashion in Greece itself) - such things as swastikas from Athenian vases, proto Corinthian Greek male dancing figures in geometric style, Greek meandering, sacaton red-on-buff paintings, Attic (Greece) geometric styles, plus many more styles; inscribed gold plates unearthed near Cuenca, Ecuador, bearing inscriptions in Libyan and hieroglyphic lettering the names of notable Numidian kings and their Mauritanian descendants of Roman times; identical beehive tombs (tholos), from Cyrene, Libya, and Crete, in Massachusetts; Spartan warriors of Libya depicted on vases from Cyrenian tombs (and dating from about 550 B.C.E.) dredged from Boston harbour; BAS reliefs in Utah identical to Libyan Shardana (or Sherden), called Sea Peoples and wearing leather kilts and crown-shaped feather ornaments; how various Amerindian tribes, the Arabs, the Phoenicians, and most of the nations on earth called the “Big Dipper” the Bear (bowl of the dipper) and the three hunters (or, the hunter and his two dogs - the three stars in the handle); the list could go on and on. A certain category of circular petroglyphs formerly thought to be “Indian shield designs” or “sun-symbols” comprise something very different: namely, representations of ancient coins. These petroglyphs are called numoglyphs and occur both in Europe and North Africa, as well as in North America.(19)


(1) Fell, Barry, Saga America, Times Books, 1980, chapter entitled, “Refuge America,” p.166.

(2) Ibid.

(3) Ibid., p.167.

(4) Nollau, Dr Guenther; Utriusque, Dr Iuris, Ten Commandments in the New Mexico Desert, ESOP, 1986, p. 142.

(5) Ibid., p. 143.

(6) Ibid.

(7) Fell, Saga, p. 6.

(Cool McClone, William R.; Leonare, Phillip M., The Epigraphic Controversy, ESOP, 1986, p. 125.

(9) Fell Saga, p. 50.

(10) Kraus, Gerhard, In Honor of Elliot Smith & William James Perry, Founders of Diffusionist Theory, ESOP, 1986, p. 183.

(11) Fell, Saga, p. 35.

(12) Fell, Barry, America B.C., Pocket Books, 1976, p. 106.

(13) Carter, George F., The Money Cowry and the Midewiwin Society, ESOP, 1986, p.160.

(14) Fell, Barry, Etymology of the Lower Mississippian Languages - Part 1: Introduction, ESOP, 1990.

(15) Fell, Saga, p. 85.

(16) Ibid., p. 87.

(17) Ibid., p. 88.

(18) Ibid.

(19) Fell, Saga, pp. 93-114.
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 11:20 am



Walter W. Baucum

"If My people who are called by My name will humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land." - (II CHRONICLES 7:14)

We of United Hebrew Congregations believe that in order to understand who the Ancient of Days is and to understand His Plan for man we must understand who Israel is and where they are located in the earth today. We also believe that all the world needs to Quest for the knowledge of who He is. Why is it important to understand where the Hebrew Children of Israel are located? It is important because the prophecies of the Hebrew Scriptures (OT) are written primarily to or about these people. So what difference does that make? Simply that when the Calamities at the End of the Age (Tribulation or the Time of Jacob’s Trouble) begin to fall upon these people they need to know who they are, where they are mentioned in Scriptures, and why this is happening to them. The Hebrews consisted of twelve tribal nations that were taken into captivity by their enemies and ten of the tribes have not yet returned. To initiate the Quest for the Ancient of Days and the Lost Ten Tribes we will take the approach of tracing a single tribe in their many journeys over time. The tribe of Dan was prophesied to leave way marks along their trail and this is our attempt to follow that trail. We hope you enjoy the journey.

This is the second instalment of an article titled Tracing Dan published and copyrighted by United
Hebrew Congregations of Picayune, MS. and is reproduced with their kind permission.

DAN IN AMERICA continued


With much condensing, and much left out, we will now jump ahead in history to the reopening of crossings to America, this time by the Celts of Iberia and Britain. Both history and on-site investigations have shown that Celts from the Iberian peninsula were responsible for the Ogam inscriptions found on ancient stone buildings in New England. In all probability, the same Celts were the actual builders of the structures on which their inscriptions occur. These Celts, by virtue of their own skills or those of their Phoenician neighbours in Spain, were capable of sailing to America to colonize any lands that appealed to them. The overwhelming evidence shows they did indeed settle here, particularly in New England. America’s Celtic Inscriptions could not have been an Independent American invention. Celts came here to write them.

Ogam (Ogham — grooved writing) is said by scholars to be derived from an ancient Greek word, “ogme,” meaning “groove.” Note that Irish Ogham appears only in inscriptions believed to postdate the time of Jesus. The Ogham script found in Iberia (Spain) and in America has fewer consonants and omits the vowels and appears to date from around 800 B.C.E. and upwards. i.e., it is older in America than in Ireland. With all the studies by Barry Fell, et. al., it is easily seen that the Celts visited or settled in parts of the U.S. about the same time Celts started first moving into Ireland from Iberia, thus backing Fell’s studies that our history is as ancient as that of Ireland and Europe.(1) For a thousand years or more, ancient Hebrew-Phoenicians, Libyan, and Egyptian mariners had visited, and in some instances established, small colonies over here. This is evident by the hundreds of lapidary (stone) inscriptions found in several languages (i.e., Phoenician, Iberian-Punic, Libyan, and Egyptian hieroglyphs) antedating the Celtic Ogham inscriptions. Descendants of these visitors are found among some of the eastern and central Indian tribes, several of which employ dialects in part from ancient Phoenician (Esau and Dan) and North African nations.(2)

By the way, the Celtic language still exists. Capt reminds us:

“Today, four Celtic dialects are spoken in Britain: Welsh, Gaelic, Erse (or Irish), and Manx. Welsh is used in Wales for religious services and is the official language for all documents of the Welsh Nationalist Party.”(5)

“Iberes” (Gaelic name for Hebrews) was carried by Celtic peoples from Spain to Ireland. Ireland was named “Hibernai,” which name still exists. But ancient historians apply the name “Scotia” to it more than any other. Orosius (3rd Century geographer) used the term, “Hibemia, the nation of the Scoti.” Ancient poets and historians claim the name “Scotia” was derived from “Scota,” queen-mother of the Milesians. Undoubtedly this was Scota, the daughter of Zedekiah, the last king of Judah. She married a Milesian prince in Egypt and their son, Eochaidh (Heremon or Eremon) married Tea Tephi and founded a dynasty in Ireland.(4)

That the Sakka were a branch of the Gimiri (Israelites) is proved by (among others) a trilingual inscription found in the tomb of Darius in southwestern Persia. The inscription includes a list of the nations Darius ruled over. He listed three separate groups of “Sakkas,” the “Amyrgian Sakkas,” the “Sakkas with the pointed caps,” and the “Sakkas who are beyond the sea.” In each case, the name “Gimiri,”in the Babylonian text, is translated “Sakka” in the Persian.

Capt says these inscriptions have been known for years but the publications dealing with them have generally passed over the translation of “Gimiri” to “Sakka” with scarcely a comment, again showing the seemingly willing ignorance of many “scholars” of today.

The only conclusion that can be drawn from these inscriptions (plus the writings of Josephus) is that the Iskuza were called “Sakka” by the Persians. This solidifies the fact that the “Iskuza” (Israelites), the “Sakka,” and the “Gimiri” are the same people. Reviewing the Royal Correspondence of the Assyrian Empire, it is evident that the “Iskuza,” the “Sakka,” the “Scythians,” the “Cimmerians,” and the “Gimiri” are all Israelites.(5)

Caesar, Strabo, and Diodorus describe Celts as fair-haired, blue-eyed, high spirited, boastful, quarrelsome, courageous, and a race who loved ornamentation. These descriptions, though, relate to the Celts of France, Britain, northern Italy, and the lands north of Greece. In Iberia, the invading Celts came in contact with, and intermingled with, an earlier Iberian people. Wilhelm von Humboldt believes these “original” Iberians to have been the ancestors of the modern Basques. Fell buys into this theory, believing the dark-haired strain of Irish and Scot Gaels, as well as the other dark-haired Celts, are the product of ancient intermarriage of Celts with Iberian Basque stock, the language of the Basques having all but suffered extinction in the process of integration.

It further appears likely to him that the bands of Iberian Celts who crossed the Atlantic must have included many brunettes of original Basque Iberian extraction, though speaking the Goidelic branch of Celtic. They probably were equally mixed, blonde and brunette Celts. Although no skull or skeleton remains have been found, other similarities exist. The copper and bronze artifacts (points and knives) of New England almost perfectly match those found on the Iberian Peninsula. The dolmens (Breton word meaning “stone table”) of New England exactly match those known from Europe and the Middle East. Dolmens are memorials to chiefs or important events and take the form of a huge central boulder, sometimes ten tons or more in weight, supported on three, four, or five vertical stones like pegs. The stone, slab-roofed chambers over here match those in Europe. Dissenters, of course, believe the bronze knives and daggers were brought over here by modern collectors, then lost. (Collectors who .pay thousands, even millions, for art and other collectibles usually lose them?)

They believe the American stone chambers to be the work of “colonial farmers,” termed “root cellars.” The absurdity of this is seen when it is found that these chambers are astronomical observatories, with solstice and equinox alignments and other Druid or priestly functions, and, again, matching those in Europe. The outer surfaces of the door lintels (or other similar surfaces) contain Ogam dedications to one of the Celtic gods, usually Bel (Beltane), the names of which are written in Phoenician letters as well as in Ogam. The inner walls or ceilings commonly carry other inscribed material, including phallic carvings. The rock cairns are the same. The “May Day” phallic stones are the same. The Druids’ seats are the same. The stone “Druid circles” (called sun circles atop the Great Divide and other high places in Eastern and Western America) are the same.

Gloria Farley and others have discovered many Ogam inscriptions in Oklahoma, the voyagers apparently ascending the Mississippi, Arkansas, and Cimarron Rivers, leaving these inscriptions and burial mounds. Celtic art on walls, dishes, pottery, and burial urns from Iberia and North America are virtually identical. Space does not permit all the evidence. The men of Tarshish established colonies in eastern North America, the settlers apparently drawn from the native Iberians (Celts and Basques) of the Guadalquivir Valley in Andalusia (Barry Fell calls these people Celtiberians) and other areas.

“That they could not have included many Phoenicians is apparent from the lack of sophisticated material cultural objects at the sites so far investigated. Rather, these colonists must have been accustomed to the rude manner of life of the Iberians before the arrival of Phoenician traders in Spain but, like many colonial peoples, they had acquired the language of their colonizers, in this case the Phoenicians, and some at least of their chieftains were literate in the Tartessian manner of writing the Phoenician (or Punic) tongue. These inferences are drawn from the documents found in their chieftains’ burial mounds. Man-made burial mounds, or tumuli, are characteristic of many royal graves of the European Bronze Age.

The first find of an engraved Phoenician tablet in America was that of a Tartessian inscription found in 1838, excavated from a burial chamber found at the base of Mammoth Mound, in Moundsville, West Virginia.”(6)
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 11:21 am

The Pontotoc stele, found in Oklahoma by Gloria Farley and Weldon W. Stout, is the work of an early Iberian colonist in America — script is known only from the Cachao-da-Rapa region in northern Porrtugal. The Iberian Punic letters are an abstract from “Hymn to the Aton,” by Pharaoh Akhnaton, and says, “When BaaI-Ra rises in the east, the beasts are content, and (when he hides his face?) they are displeased.” Although dated from the thirteenth century B.C.E., the American version can scarcely be older than about 800 B.C.E.(7)

Fell says these Celtiberians came from Ireland and Wales, and even from Palestine.

Was there a Phoenician-Danite and American-Celtic connection? Very probably A city built by people in Spain was called Tarshish (same name in “Old Testament”). The Greeks called it Tartessos, from which comes “Tartessian,” used by epigraphers to describe the script and dialect employed by the men of Tarshish. It is a dialectal variant of Phoenician. The Holy Scriptures say the ships of Tarshish were the largest seagoing vessels known to the Semitic world, the name eventually being applied to any large ocean-going vessel. These ships became proverbial as an expression of sea power. With their monopoly on the making of bronze, they traded with Celtic peoples in Europe and Britain, and probably with people in America, which thing they kept strictly secret. Some, including James Whittall (colleague of Fell), think that the American Celts were deliberately brought here by Phoenicians, who wanted mining communities to exploit American natural resources, and with whom they could then trade. (More on this later)

Inscriptions, for example, have been found in West Virginia and Ohio, where their association with large burial tumuli resembling those of the Iberian Bronze Age point to important American colonies of these Phoenician navigators and merchant princes. Merchants rather than mere explorers, they traded with the New England Celts, who by 700 to 600 B.C.E., would be well-established fur trappers already and very likely were mining precious metals on many sites where ancient workings have been discovered.(Cool

“The periodic arrival of Phoenician ships on the New England coast Is attested by the Ogam Inscription on Monhegan island, off the coast of Maine. It is obvious that the flat-topped rocky islet would not have been set aside for the loading and unloading of Phoenician ships were they not regular visitors to America, with a predictable timetable of ports of arrival and departure at expected dates.”(9)

These Monhegan inscriptions are given in old Goedelic and were intended as a notification for native American Celts and Amerindians too, probably, who had goods for sale or exchange, to inform them where to bring their merchandise. They suggest that organized international maritime commerce was well established in the late Bronze Age, that North American ports were listed on the sailing timetables of the overseas vessels of the principal Phoenician shipping companies, and that the same information was circulated to customers in America.

Another point of interest is that nearly all the rivers in the Northeast U.S. are named with European Celtic names, not Amerindian names. Also, in the state of Washington, alongside the Columbia River, some college students found a skull that turned out to be 9,200 years old, and that of a white man. Now called “Kenniwick Man,” further studies presently are being done on it. Whether the dating methods used (two different ones were used, both with the same age-result) are completely accurate, the find lends further credence to a Celtic presence over here much earlier than once believed.

Commander Gene Andress, who is a Muskogee (Creek) Indian from Alabama, writes:

“Late in the summer of 1942, when I had just turned fourteen, I went to visit relatives near Gadsden. On a nearby farm lived a lad of my own age named Doug Davis. He began to tell me the local Indian traditions. There were still many Cherokees and Muscogees who lived in the area, as well as numerous village sites and Indian mounds along the nearby Coosa River. We talked about ‘lost treasure,’ and met an old Muskogee chief who told us about ancient legends of white men who had sailed up the Coosa a thousand years ago to trade for wood, furs, and metals.

Being even at that age of a sceptical academic bent I checked in the local library and found references to Welsh princes having sailed the Coosa around 500 C.E. Even this vague literary confirmation greatly sparked my interest. Chief Tappawingow further told us of a cave near an ancient trading village known as Tulla, not too far away, where relics could still be found. Typically adventuresome teen-agers, we set out to find this place, some five miles to the south, from his fairly precise directions ... I can yet feel the thrill of the search after these 36 years.”(10)

He goes on to say that they found the cave and arrowheads, broken pieces of pottery and a small vase. These artifacts proved to be Roman, similar to some found on board a wrecked vessel dating from Republican times, about 100 B.C.E., found in the Mediterranean and canying a cargo of ceramic lamps from a factory in Pompeii in Campania, south of Naples.(11)

America in the fifth century C.E. had become a land of haven and refuge for Christians all over the western part of the Old World. From Morocco, Libya, Spain, and Britain, people took ship for Asqa-Samal (as the Libyans called America, “The Great North Land”).(12)

A version of the Ten Commandments engraved on a rock at Los Lunas near Albuquerque, New Mexico, and a similar one on a stone tablet from a burial mound at Newark, Ohio, are ancient inscriptions using a north Canaanite script and old Hebrew language.(13)

An Ancient Hebrew inscription, “God is the Sun, Sacred is the Sun,” is found in the Andes Mountains, the script being early Iberic, and words being Hebrew. It is possible the black circular sun-symbol is a mystic sign for “Yahweh,” in which case the inscription is to be regarded as Iberian Hebrew.(14)

On p. 168 are discussed the Jews in Tennessee, Kentucky and east Arkansas, which already have been commented on.

A memorial stele in slightly illiterate North African Creed of the Byzantine period was found at Cripple Creek, Colorado, saying, “Herein is the last resting place of Palladis, the servant of God.”(15)

Salvataore Michael Trento wrote an interesting thing in a chapter entitled, “Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Southern New York.” I quote:

“Colonel Joseph Brant was a Dartmouth-educated Mohawk sachem (chief) whose biography was written by William Stone in 1838. In the book Stone cites a lengthy and informative conversation between Brant and a questioning scholar:

‘Among other things relating to the western country,’ says Mr Woodruff, ‘I was curious to learn in the course of my conversations with Captain Brant, what information he could give me respecting the tumuli (mounds) which are found on and near the margin rivers and lakes, from the St Lawrence to the Mississippi. He stated, in reply, that the subject had been handed down since time immemorial, that in an age long gone by, there came white men from a foreign country, and by consent of the Indians established trading houses and settlements where these tumuli are found. A friendly intercourse was continued for several years; many of the white men brought their wives, and had children born to them; and additions to their numbers were made yearly from their own country These circumstances at length gave rise to jealousies among the Indians, and fears began to be entertained in regard to the increasing numbers, wealth, and ulterior views of the newcomers; apprehending that, becoming strong, they might one day seize upon the country as their own. A secret council, composed of the chiefs of all the different nations from the St Lawrence to the Mississippi, was therefore convoked; the result of which, after long deliberation, was a resolution that on a certain night designated for that purpose, all their white neighbors, men, women, and children, should be exterminated. The most profound secrecy was essential to the execution of such a purpose; and such was the fidelity with which the fatal determination was kept, that the conspiracy was successful, and the device carried completely into effect. Not a soul was left to tell the tale.’”(16)

Jean Hunt, in her book, Tracking the Flood Survivors (1991), wrote about Prince Madoc. Madoc, Prince of Wales, is said to have established the first European colony in the continental U.S.A. A sailor who became head of the Welsh navy, he sailed during peaceful years to the Antilles, the Bahamas, Mexico, and possibly Venezuela and Florida. His last mission left Wales in 1170, which voyage was recorded in the ancient maritime log of missing ships of Britain in 1171. Olson believed Madoc, on one of his earlier voyages, to have been the white, bearded visitor to South America called Quetzalcoatl. He made the point that the Pope of that time had ruled that the first European explorer to visit a new land could claim ownership for his country. The French and Spanish, he believes, would have been very interested in suppressing evidence that a Welshman had been there earlier. He traced Madoc’s progress on his last voyage from the Gulf of Mexico inland, always meeting and being pushed further and further inland by hostile tribes. When the Spanish reached Mobile Bay, “they found evidence the Welsh had been there. They found Roman coins that had been minted in Wales, and some old coracles (the unique, round leather boats used in Wales) in a cave that was situated along the Dog River.”

Eventually, Madoc and his colonists reached Clark County, Indiana, where Olson believed they became known as the Mandan Indians. General George Rogers Clark reportedly found some skeletons in armour that he thought were ancient Welshmen. Other Welsh armour, marked with the mermaid and harp that appeared on Madoc’s coat of arms, was found near the Falls of the Ohio. Native Americans in the area spoke of yellow-haired giants, whose kings were buried in stone cists, and of a war of extermination waged against the “White Indians.” The final battle took place at the Falls of Ohio, where “nearly the whole of the White Indians were driven upon an island and slaughtered.” (excerpted from Jean Hunt, quoting from Dana Olson’s book, Prince Madoc: Founder of Clark County, Indiana)
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 11:22 am

Jean Hunt further says, “George Catlin, the painter, visited the Mandans (Jean Hunt’s words — I have heard from another source that he lived with them for two years) and painted them with blond hair and grey or blue eyes. Reportedly, Welsh speaking people were able to talk with them with no difficulty. They used boats like the coracles of Wales (My note: called “bull boats”), which were propelled in the same manner: by standing in them and drawing the paddle toward the boat, rather than with oars extended to the sides, as was the case with Indian canoes.”(17)

Another source (of mine) adds that many were red-headed and freckled-faced and were required by the tribe to speak Welsh until age 12, after which they could learn an Indian language.

May the writer interject something of interest at this point? We know that the Phoenicians very probably were Esau- ites, with Dan mixed in, but some evidence exists that they might just as well have been Israelites too. In Greek eyes, the Phoenicians-proper were the same as the Israelite tribes inhabiting the Phoenician coast. Romans called them “Poenes” or “Puni.” The Puni (or Phuni, the descendants of Phua) were a clan in the Tribe of lssachar (Numbers 26:23, 24), who at one time had conquered the “Phoenician” mother city of Sidon. The Phoenicians also were known as the “Puni,” and “Puni” is a clan name among the Tribe of Issachar

“Of the sons of Issachar after their families ... of Pua, the family of the Puni...” - (Numbers 26:23)

The Hebrew name Pua (Phua or “Puni”) is a root word denoting a plant used to make red dye. The name “Phoenician” has the same connotation. Even “Phoenix,” from which the term “Phoenician” is derived, is a Greek word meaning “red” after the dye Phoenicians were famous for producing. Note too that Sidon once had been conquered by the “Shakalesh” or “Saddara.” Both were one and the same and were Israelites from the Tribe of Issachar. Issachar, like Dan, was linked to his brother Zebulon. In Genesis 49:13, Zebulon is blessed:

“Zebulon shall dwell at the haven of the sea (on the sea shores) and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his borderland shall be unto Sidon.” (See also Deuteronomy 33:18,19)

Yair Davidy writes, “The Talmud (Megilla 6a) understood the blessing of Zebulon to entail success in sea fishing, the production of purple dye from a sea mollusc, and the manufacture of glass from certain sands in the Tyre and Sidon areas. Zebulon was also considered a sea merchant. All the activities of Zebulon are those otherwise associated with the Phoenicians.”(18)

To digress further, Esau had twelve sons (Didn’t everybody back then?). An instructor of mine in graduate school, Dr. Ozerdin, himself a Turk, said that the Mongols were one of the Turkish tribes. He said these Esau-ites (my term, not his) had migrated into the interior of Asia. Later some of them came back to become the Turkish tribes we are most familiar with, the Seljuks, Ottomans, etc. In a book, The Dene and Na-Dene Indian Migration 1233 A.D.: Escape from Genghis Khan to America, the author, Ethel G. Stewart, makes an excellent case for the Navajo and other Athabaskan or Dene-speaking peoples in North America and the peoples of Central Asia being related, or even the same. The Navajo hogan, for example, is almost identical to the Mongolian yrta; the Apache’s one-stringed violin is similar to a Chinese and also a Mongolian musical instrument; Asiatics and many Indian tribes found barbecued dog a delicacy; the Dene peoples had knowledge of the crocodile and its habits, of caravans, of the coastal trade of Asia, of iron knives in pre-European times, even of iron ore; linguistically, there are 14 isomorphs (a specific word in one language meaning the same and sounding like a similar word in another) between Navajo and Mongolian. (The above excerpted from the book review)

While in Turkey, I was astounded at the similarity of the Turkish and Navajo weaving and colour patterns of their rugs. Also strange to me were the definite “reddish” colour of Turks and the overall shortness of them. Because of the blessing of Esau by Isaac, I have wondered if the Esau-ites not only sailed westward as Phoenicians and went eastward into Mongolia and China, but also if many of them continued onward, across the Pacific and the Bering Strait, and became the “Indians” (red men) of the North American continent. Some people believe Tiras, a son of Japheth, to be the father of the Indian tribes because of the similarity of names of his sons with Indian tribes in the western hemisphere. But every one of these tribes is in South and Central America, not North America.

Even skull types and physical builds have a message for us. Amerindian skulls on the western side of America are rounded, like Siberians and other Asians; those on the eastern side are oval, like the European Celtic. A mixture of the two (probably much interbreeding) is found in the Rocky Mountain states.

“...American Indian tribes varied widely in physical appearances, languages, and lifestyles, and represented different kinds of amalgamations of earlier peoples... .East Coast native Americans resembled European and Middle Eastern populations physically more than they did Far Eastern peoples, while the reverse was true on the West Coast. Canadian Takhelne were related to Gaelic or some other Old World language. Pottery abruptly appearing in the Northeast about 1000 B.C.E. was closer in type to then-contemporary North European pottery (Vignette I) than to other American types.”(19)

Could there be the possibility that some of the “red” Indians of North America were Esau and the “white” Indians of Jacob? Some (myself included) have believed for years that Eternal gave America to Israel, the son of Isaac, for an inheritance. It is part of our “promised land.” Wasn’t Esau his son too? Perhaps some of the red Indians have a rightful claim to North America too. (Digression ended)

Most of the evidence, though, points to Phoenicians being Esau. Note that “Ousoos” founded Tyre and is given the qualities of Esau, the brother of Jacob, according to Sanchuniathon (an early Phoenician writer).

Going back to Jean Hunt, re. Israel and Phoenicia being related and the Canaanites being (probably) Esau (Phoenicia), she mentions a talk with one of her sources, Ivan Lissner. Lissner told her he believed (the Masons) were wrong, that the ancient wisdom of the Masons did not begin with the Egyptians or with King Solomon, but that it went far back beyond that, to the megalith builders. The deciphering of the clay tablets of Ras Shamra has opened doors of knowledge about the Canaanite mythology not previously known. They date from the fourteenth century B.C.E., but their content is much older, probably passed down verbally for a while. Since the Canaanites and Israelites inhabited the same country, led a similar life, were familiar with the same legends, and worshipped the same god (at times), we are forced to assume that both had a common origin. Thus the Ugarit tablets take us back to the earliest history of the Israelite people, making their discovery one of the most important events in “Biblical” research. The religion of the Canaanites was not primitive, just “pagan.” A tightly organized priesthood served regular spells of duty in their numerous temples. Their supreme deity was El, a word which means “god” in the Phoenician and other Semitic languages.(20)

The Phoenicians, remember, brought the alphabet to Greece, and it became the same alphabet for all Europe. Herodotus says in the fifth book of his histories that the Greeks got their written script from the Phoenicians, who came to Greece with King Cadmus, bringing with them many branches of knowledge. Israel also was a seafaring race, renowned for their hardiness, daring, and commercial enterprises. The Ostimians, the spiritual ancestors of the Frisians, Saxons, Vikings, Dutch, and English, used large leather-covered boats. These boats also were used by the pre-Celtic inhabitants of Ireland, and the aboriginal Irish were called Fir-bolg (“people of the hide-boats”) by the Celts (these boats being the same as those used by St Brendan, the Welsh, and the Mandan and other plains Indians).

“Apparent trips to America have been recorded in Viking sagas such as Hauksbok and Eyrbyggia, by Greek historians Plutarch and Diodorus Siculus, in several Chinese documents, and in medieval European accounts of voyages by Irish St. Brendan, Welsh Prince Madoc, and Scot Henry Sinclair. Artifacts have been found in America that accord with each of these accounts. Barry Fell deciphered also an in situ engraving on a large cliff face at Figuig, Morocco, that told of ‘A Fifth-Century Moroccan Emigration to North America.”’(21)


(1) Capt, E. Raymond, Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets, U.S.A., 1995, P. 152.

(2) Ibid.,p.154.

(3) Ibid.

(4) Capt, Op.cit., p. 150.

(5) Ibid.,p.140.

(6) Fell, ABC (America B.C.), p. 157.

(7) Ibid.,p. 159.

(Cool Ibid., pp. 53-54.

(9) Ibid.,pp. 100-101.

(10) Fell, Saga, p. 118.

(11) Ibid.,p. 120.

(12) Ibid., p. 121.

(13) Ibid., p. 167.

(14) Ibid.

(15) Ibid., p. 168.

(16) Trento, Salvataore Michael, The Search for Lost America: The Mysteries of the Stone Ruins, p. 93.

(17) Hunt, Jean, Tracking the Flood Survivors, 1991, p. 128.

(18) Davidy, Yair, Lost Israelite Identity Russell-Davis, 1996, p. 161.

(19) Totten, Norman, “Old World Contacts with America,” ESOP, 1986, p.81.

(20) Hunt, Tracking, p. 38.

(21) Totten, Op.cit., p. 83.
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 11:34 am



Walter W. Baucum

"If My people who are called by My name will humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land." - (II CHRONICLES 7:14)

We of United Hebrew Congregations believe that in order to understand who the Ancient of Days is and to understand His Plan for man we must understand who Israel is and where they are located in the earth today. We also believe that all the world needs to Quest for the knowledge of who He is. Why is it important to understand where the Hebrew Children of Israel are located? It is important because the prophecies of the Hebrew Scriptures (OT) are written primarily to or about these people. So what difference does that make? Simply that when the Calamities at the End of the Age (Tribulation or the Time of Jacob’s Trouble) begin to fall upon these people they need to know who they are, where they are mentioned in Scriptures, and why this is happening to them. The Hebrews consisted of twelve tribal nations that were taken into captivity by their enemies and ten of the tribes have not yet returned. To initiate the Quest for the Ancient of Days and the Lost Ten Tribes we will take the approach of tracing a single tribe in their many journeys over time. The tribe of Dan was prophesied to leave way marks along their trail and this is our attempt to follow that trail. We hope you enjoy the journey.

This is the final instalment of an article titled Tracing Dan published and copyrighted by United
Hebrew Congregations of Picayune, MS. and is reproduced with their kind permission.

DAN IN AMERICA concluded


What further evidence might there be that Dan came to America? Gloria Stewart theorized that the Dene tribes (the name used for themselves by the Apache and other Athabaskans, i.e., Navajo) are derived from the Han tribe in China, thereby fitting in with traditional scholarship explaining the origin of many of the cultures in the western portion of America.(1)

Research has shown a Celtic element in Dene, presumably via the Italic-Celtic of the Tokharian B dialect of the northern Tarim Oases and the Sino-Tibetan border of Kan-su, or else via more recent incursions of Celtic culture across the Atlantic.(2)

Apache (Dene (Dine) —from “Dan” —meaning “people”) (also includes Navajo) comes from “apachu” (Ponchteca — Mayan name for “trading people”), which is a Zuni word for “enemy.” Apaches also called themselves T’inde or lnde (a.k.a. Dene). They were late comers to America from Asia, from the time of Ghengis Khan’s Mongol escapades (1233- 1300) up to the 1400’s and even later. They were excellent horsemen. The same area of China where the red-headed and white people are buried is a high plateau and mountainous area containing a people (today) who are the best horsemen in Asia and who spend much of their lives on horses. Is there a possibility these Apache and Navajo (Dene) peoples were influenced so much by Danites (who drifted eastward from their captivity in Assyria before turning and heading west) that they called themselves after that name? Israel, remember, from the time of Solomon, were horsemen and cavalry fighters. (See also next-to-last paragraph under “Dan in England and Europe.”)

Note the Alibamu Indians’ similarity to the Hebrew word, “Oholibamah,” meaning “tent-dweller.” “Mandan” is a Siouan word. Mandans called themselves “Numakik,” meaning “people.” There is some evidence that the Sioux people themselves were Danites from Ireland and Scandinavia. Many similarities exist, including their tall statures and their same sweat lodges. The Kensington Rune Stone is not a fake, contrary to what some archaeologists believe.(3)

The Arikara were Tanish (“original people”). Dan (“people”) and ish (the Semitic morpheme for “human being”).

Rok (“crow,” “sparrowhawk,” or “bird people”); “Absaroke” is the Crow Indian name for themselves. “Rok” is a morpheme and is also the snake totem (same as Tribe of Dan). Note also “Tanith”: Patron saint of Carthaginian sailors. (Note Dan (Tan) and Esau/ Phoenicia)

Hopi(u) - “Hopitu” (“peaceful ones”); note similarity to “Habiru” - “Hebrew,” i.e., “moqui.”

Ojibwa (“Anishinabe”) (means “first people”). Note “ish” - Semitic for human being. Note that the

Chippewa (Ojibwas) and Chippenham are probably variations of the same morpheme seen in “Kjobnhann” (Copenhagen), which is pronounced almost identically to “Chippenham” by the Danes.

Early reports from North America include reference to Samoset, the Wampanoag chief who walked out of the woods to greet the Pilgrims in almost perfect English. There are many references to Gaelic (Welsh) and Hebrew speakers who claimed to be able to communicate with the North American natives in their mother tongue.

The Salishan (Flathead) tribes of the Northwest called themselves “Se-lic,” a name reminiscent of the Salic Franks of the time before Charlemagne, a time known as the “Migration of the Peoples.”(4)

What is even more interesting is that a sub-tribe of these Flatheads called themselves “Tuadhu” (pronounced “Twathu”). This is the exact same name as the general proper name for Franks and other Teutonic tribes, all meaning, “The People.” Note also “Tuatha de Danaan.”

Ida Jane Gallagher, in some interesting research, found that whites in Connecticut wanted Indian land for themselves and on April 24, 1729, negotiated with Chief Squantz of the Schaghticoke, a tribe of Algonquin lineage, for it. The deed was recorded on May 9,1729, and is deposited in the archives of the State Capitol in Hartford, Connecticut, today. The signatures (“marcks”) of the thirteen chiefs appeared to be a syllabary or alphabet. Dr. Barry Fell has linked them to Basque and Ogam, the Indian deed signatures being the first or first and second syllables of the chiefs’ names. Fell earlier had deciphered the Cypro-Minoan signatures of Abenaki chiefs on a 1729 treaty with the British in Nova Scotia, Algonkian signatures on the Nipomuck Indian deed to Sutton, Massachusetts, (1681), and others. Dr. Fell says that the Cree/Objibwa syllabary used today has many matches with ancient Basque inscriptions. Epigraphers and linguists are learning that Amerindians had writing systems long before Colonial times.(5)

All these (above) have been possibilities of Dan and/or other Israelite tribes mixed in with (or having direct influence on) Amerindians. Briefly, can we find possible Esau-ites (Phoenicians) in America in Indian tribal names?

Chitimacha (“man altogether red”) inhabited the Louisiana gulf Coast since 600 B.C.E.

Fox (“Sauk-Fox”) (“Meskwakihug” or “Meskwakie” - “Red earth people”) (These are Muskogean.)

Catawba (also Muskogean) called themselves “Issa” or “Esaw” (“people”). Note ish. Muskogean is of the Sioux linguistic stock.

Barry Fell said the alphabets in ancient America include Arabic, Berber, Carthaginian, Celtic, Cree, Cypriot, Greek, Hebrew, Hiragana, Iberian, Kufi, Latin, Libyan, Minoan, Nashki, Norse, Punic, Tifinag. Tifinag, remember, is an alphabet, not a language. Any language can be made using Tifinag. “Pima” is Arabic or Semitic derived from Iberian Punic. “Zuni” is North African (Libyan).(6)

Fell thinks of the Pima Indians as descendants of some Celtiberian tribe that had been converted to the use of the Punic language by Phoenician colonists in Spain, and whose more adventurous members migrated to the Lands Beyond the Sunset under Phoenician leadership.(7)

His first attention was to a white leather sun-disk in the Pueblo materials in the Peabody Museum of Archaeology at Harvard University, which had been obtained from New Mexico after a religious ceremony of the Shiwi (Zuni) in 1891. On it was painted the Libyan letters T-M, a formula adopted in Egypt as the phonetic rendering of “Atum,” the primeval sun god of North Africa. The Libyan language, as Fell has shown elsewhere, is basically Egyptian combined with Anatolian (Turkish) roots introduced by the Sea Peoples who invaded Libya, while the written form of the language is like that of the Phoenicians, alphabetic but using only consonants. The Zuni tongue is largely derived from North African dialects, the linkage being very marked with Coptic, Middle Egyptian, and Nubian of the Nile Valley. While there is evidence of much loan vocabulary, too, from adjacent tribes (from the Algonquian dialects to the north and the Mexican tongues to the south), the main vocabulary is North African.

Dr. Fell’s conclusion is that the Zuni language should be reclassified as an American branch of the North African group, which otherwise comprised the belt of so-called Afro-Asian tongues of mixed Semitic-Hamitic origin, stretching from the Moroccan Berber area near Gibraltar across the southern coast lands of the Mediterranean to Somalia in the east, and including in former times the ancient Libyan, ancient Egyptian, Coptic, and Ethiopian (Amharic) languages. He further thinks it probable that the ancestors of the Shivi people of Auni are the same visitors from Libya who cut the ancient inscriptions.(Cool

Barry Fell saw that the Pima traditional religious chants were treated not as esoteric secret religious jargon of the Makai priest-magicians, but as corrupt creolinlzed Arabic derived apparently from North African Berber sources, somehow being superiposed upon the native tongue in much the same way as religious vocabulary of Latin or French origin was superimposed upon Anglo-Saxon after the Norman Conquest of England. His friend ShupShe, a learned Indian scholar of high rank in the Mide Grand Medicine Lodge of the Miami-Potawatomi of Indiana, suggested that both the story-content and the actual vocabulary of these North African tales may have reached the Pima from visiting Arab-Berber traders in pre-Columbian times or even later. Koranic influence is apparent in the story of the Flood of Noah. Greek influence appears in the myth of Persephone and the Fables of Aesop. Many of the petroglyphs in the deserts of Nevada, California, and Idaho (Wees Bar) are similar to those of North Africa, including the name Mohamed and Koranic religious expressions. Professor Albert Casey and colleagues observed North African features in the cranial osteology of the Indians of the Southwest.

“Balboa and other early explorers referred to scattered groups of white Indians, black Indians, and traditions of pygmies .. ”.(9)
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 11:34 am

In the world cultures class that I teach, I discuss at length something of much interest to me: the three “white, North African” tribes in the American Southwest that the Hopi, Zuni, Papago, Pueblo, etc. called “the ancient ones,” and whom we call Anasazi, Hohokam, and Mogollon. The big question, besides who were they originally, is where did they disappear to between 1250-1300? Also, were Zuni part of them or just inherit by diffusion and trade their same culture and language? Or should we add Zuni as a fourth tribe of “the ancient ones” who came from North Africa with them, and who now are the only ones who remained behind when the others left?

Of equal interest to me are the gene frequency distributions of the “Amerindians.” Early explorers commented on the apparent racial diversity of indigenous Americans and speculated on their origins. Padre Francisco Garces, in 1775, reported that in the Zuni Pueblo, there were two races of men speaking two different languages. One group, said to be the ancient inhabitants of the land, was black, while the other group was red. Today, it seems reasonable to assume that the ancient black inhabitants seen by Garces were Indonesians of partial south Indian ancestry, and that the lighter-skinned people were the Zuni, of partial North African descent (Phoenicians).(10)

Barry Fell’s work on the Libyan aspect of the Zuni language is supportive of this, as is Casey’s craniometric data relating the Old Zuni to Mediterranean sea-farers and their Ticuso Cromagnon antecedents.(11)

The conventional belief, that almost all Indigenous Americans came from Siberia, falls a notch or two when we find strikingly different gene distributions In North, Central, and South America and the disparity in gene profiles between Asians and Americans in the region of the Bering Straight. Guthrie says the first Americans probably lacked the A and B genes. In North America, the high levels of A could have come from Europe or North Africa. The Diego gene, said to be the main Mongoloid marker, is at much higher levels in South America than anywhere else in the world, and it could very well be called the South American gene. The old idea that a small homogeneous population of Siberian-Americans, evolving variously in response to environmental pressures, gave rise to the diverse modern Amerindian peoples, seems shaky.

“The peculiar Auni Cde/cDE ratio of 3.2 is suggestive of a connection with the Mediterranean.” (Guthrie quotes this from Mourant, in reference 19, p. 72, with regard to a Cde/cDE ratio of 5 among the Basques.)(12) The low level of A gene would seem to argue against a close connection with North Africa, but the Berbers of the Atlas Mountains have only 6% A. It will be recalled that Fell believes the ancient Libyan language incorporated in the Zuni language has been preserved to a large degree by Berber Isolates.(13)

Barry Fell gives much more information on these people, including the Mimbres pottery and “magic” symbols used in their priesthood being written Libyan words for those objects. The matching pairs of words from New Mexico and from North Africa, though, are a final clincher. They are so numerous, and the phonetic relationships so evident, that it is possible to set out the rules of phonetic mutation that govern the derivation of the Zuni language from its Libyan parent language.

The Anasazi “kivas” (underground chambers) were the same as those of the Mountain Berbers in North Africa. Herodotus called these Berbers Troglodytes (people who live in holes in the ground). The pueblos of the Southwest perfectly match those of the Berbers in the Atlas Mountains. The Zuni word “adobe” comes from the Arabic “ah-topi,” having the same meaning.

Dr. Fell goes on to say that the Polynesian people, like the Libyans themselves, are descended from the Anatolian Sea Peoples who invaded the Mediterranean around 1400 B.C.E. and, after their defeat, settled Libya. Later the Libyan seamen were employed by the Pharaohs in the Egyptian fleet, and still later the Libyan chiefs seized control of Egypt to establish the Libyan dynasties, mentioned earlier in “Dan in North Africa.”

We have seen (to the point of being tiresome) the connection of Dan with Greece, Anatolia and the Sea People, and Phoenicia. Wherever these Greeks (especially North African Greeks) and Phoenicians went, there did Dan go also. Fell and others make connections of these seafaring peoples with Polynesia, Peru, Central America, Southwest, Northeast, and Central United States, and Canada. Zuni loan words are derived from Spanish and English in modern times, but a much older loan vocabulary includes words like “zi” (hair) and “ahha” (take) from the Otomi language of Mexico; words like “pu’a” (break) and “tachchu” (father) from the Aztec language; words like “pilha” (bow) and “ma” (well) from Huasteca of Mexico; “pizulliya” (circle) and “lashokti” (ear) from Mayan.

Their basic language, though, is North African, comprising a large Libyo-Egyptian element similar to Coptic, to which have been added Ptolemaic roots brought to the Egyptian and Libyan lands by Greek settlers in the wake of the Spartan (Danite) colonization of Libya in the eighth century B.C.E., and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great and his successors, the Ptolemies, during the last four centuries B.C.E. There are also roots of Nilotic origin, probably introduced to the Egyptian and Libyan speech by Nubian slaves.(14)

To digress briefly, on page 100 of Saga America are pictographs of Spartan Greeks from Libya found in Tennessee and Utah, near Vernal. The Spartans of Libya retained the warlike habits of their ancestors in Greece, and thus maintained their independence for nearly a thousand years. The same helmets and spears and round shields appear on American inscriptions and in Cyrenian tombs, the latter dating from about 550 B.C.E. Also, a bronze circular shield engraved with fighting gladiators has been dredged from Boston Harbour.


Dr. James L. Guthrie wrote in his “Comparison of Gene Frequency Distributions” about the Melungeons, one of about 200 “isolate” populations of the Eastern U.S. who seem to be a union of Europeans, Amerindians, and Blacks. The Melungians of Tennessee, Virginia, and North Carolina, including the Lumbee Indians, are unique. His studies conclude that the Black portion turns out to be Portuguese; also, none of them are Indians. Rollin Gillespie (a member of the Epigraphic Society) postulates that these Melungeons descended from Milesians, the founders of Milan, who fled their Anatolian homeland in 494 B.C.E. Most went to Ireland and Iceland by way of Cadiz. Gillespie relates Caesar’s difficulty in driving the Melungeons from their island stronghold in 52 B.C.E., and suggests that some escaped to America. A portion of the story tells that they were the friendly White Indians who absorbed the “Lost Colony” of Roanoke in 1587, an idea supported by the appearance among the Melungeons of family names that were present In the Roanoke colony.(15)

Henriette Mertz, in Atlantis, Dwelling Place of the Gods, presents the case for immigration by Christian Portuguese to Florida in 734 to escape the Moors. Anthropologists studied a sample, 177 people from Hancock County, Tennessee, and Lee County, Virginia, and the results showed the Melungeons to be Caucasian: more like Portuguese than English, with negligible input from Blacks or Indians. Briefly, all the data shows no distinguishing differences between Melungeons and certain people of Libya, the Canary Islands, Malta, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. This distribution generates a map, almost, of the Phoenician, or Sea-People settlements. Nearly as close were certain populations of Ireland, Sweden, France, Britain, Germany, and the Netherlands. Again, where we find Phoenicians being traced anywhere, Dan was among them.(16)

To conclude this, to this day the Portuguese laugh at the traditional story of Columbus. They themselves had mapped Newfoundland and Nova Scotia by 1424 and their knowledge seems to have been based on centuries of transatlantic navigation. Note, too, that some of the Mediterranean people (Phoenicians and Danites) were called Phoinikes, meaning “redskins.”

To return briefly to Dan and Phoenicia in America, there was the legend of St. Brendan, who, with a party of 17 monks, made a voyage to America in a leather ship 400 years before the Vikings and 1,000 years before Columbus (all documented in Latin texts dating back at least to 800 C.E.). The round-trip voyage took seven years. He reported things like pillars of crystal floating in the sea (icebergs). The boat was made of 49 ox hides stitched over a wooden frame like a patchwork quilt. Tim Severn tells about finding in Ari, the Learned’s Book of the Icelanders, dated 1133, a report that Vikings found “books, bells, and croziers” left by Irish priests on Iceland. In Greenland, the first Norse reported finding stone huts and fragments of skin boats. These were not Eskimo boats, different completely from their kayaks.(17)

Another voyage by an Irishman (Danite) across the Atlantic was that of Cuchulainn. The two best known figures of South America are Quetzalcoatl and Kukulcan, both reputed to be white men who arrived from and departed to the east. According to Mayan records, Kukulcan arrived in 987 A.D. The Mayan hieroglyphic dates have been verified by radiocarbon dating. I will skip the original and lengthy story, but the conclusion is that an Irish oral history has an Irishman named Cuchulainn traveling westward to a new land and retuming...and also accounts written in South America told that a “white man” named Kukulcan arrived from the east, stayed awhile, then returned to his home. My interest in this is, of course, that we have just another record (of many) of Dan sailing all over the world and especially of his coming to the Americas.(18)

“...and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed.”
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 11:35 am

Jean Hunt tells how she read Lewis Spence’s Atlantis in America and of her finding in it an explanation of who the Cabiri were. Spence apparently quoted Sanconiathon as saying that the cult of the Cabiri was of Carthaginian origin and of its being associated with Osiris. The cult of the Cabiri appears to have been brought from North Africa to Egypt and Greece. What is interesting about these Cabiri is that they are said to have been the inventors of boats, of the arts of hunting and fishing, and of building and husbandry. They also invented the art of writing and the use of salt and of medicines.(19)

My belief is that the blessings given Esau and Jacob (i.e., Phoenicia and Israel-Dan) were such that wherever they went in the world, they took with them such knowledge as to bring all whom they influenced up a notch or two above what they themselves had achieved. Be reminded, too, of the particular blessing of old Israel on to the two Sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh.

Although not germane to our topic, I would like to add the following from Jean Hunt as she quoted Ignatius Donnelly in his Atlantis: The Antediluvian World. Among the ancient nations, there was a general belief that the art of writing was known to the antediluvians. The Druids, for example, believed in books more ancient than the Flood. They styled them “the books of Pheryllt,” and “the writings of Pridian or Hu.” Berosus, speaking of the time before the Deluge, says: “Oannes (Noah) wrote concerning the generations of mankind and their civil polity.” The Hebrew commentators on Genesis say, “Our rabbins assert that Adam, our father of blessed memory, composed a book of precepts, which were delivered to him by God (Eternal) in Paradise.”(20)

{Books/writings mentioned in the Holy Scriptures include Genesis 5:1 (the Book of the generations of Adam), Exodus 17:14 (Amalek), Exodus 24:7; II Kings 23:2 (Covenant), Deuteronomy 31:24 (Law of Eternal), Malachi 3:16 (Book of Remembrance), Psalm 69:28 (Book of Life), Joshua 10:13; II Samuel 1:28 (Book of Jasher), II Chronicles 24:27, and others. See also Job 19:23, the Book of Job probably being the oldest book in the Holy Scriptures.}

Continuing with Jean Hunt, the Hebrews preserved a tradition that the Ad-ami, the people of Ad, orAdlantis, possessed, while yet dwelling in Paradise, the art of writing. (Note that Jean Hunt (now deceased) was attempting to prove that the “little people” found in most of the coastal regions of the world were survivors of the flood of Atlantis. My personal belief is, after reading her book, and since most if not all these people were (1) found mostly on coastal areas of earth, and (2) most if not all were “red” people, that these peoples were Esau-ites, which would fit quite well with the blessings given Esau by his blind father Isaac.) Further, it has been suggested that without the use of letters, it would have been impossible to preserve the many details as to dates, ages, and measurements (as of the ark) handed down to us in Genesis. Strabo says, “The inhabitants of Spain possessed records written before the Deluge.”(21)

This would make sense, considering that unless Eternal told him directly, Moses must have had some written records to refer to when writing the first five books. Further conjecture would make creditable our belief that Eternal Himself taught Adam and Eve in the Garden how to do many things, writing perhaps being one of them. Shem could have brought books across the Flood with him and given them to Abraham, who passed them on down his own line. Shem, I have believed for years, was the Melchizedek of Genesis (See also article by Charles Voss, United Hebrew Congregations).

Where, then, are these books today? Probably not in existence now, although some might have crossed over the Flood only to disappear later, but not before parts of them had been copied or memorized then written later. Several Christian writers allude to the existence of a Druidic literature in ancient Ireland. We are told that St. Patrick, in his Roman Catholic religious zeal, burnt 180 books belonging to the Irish Druids. Also, did not the fanatical Islamic people destroy the great Library of Alexandria? Didn’t the fanatical Spanish clergy incinerate all the native manuscripts of Mexico? (22) Also, weren’t thousands of books in the Middle Ages destroyed with their constant book burnings?

Classical historians wrote that the Druids knew and used Ogam. Lay persons illegally learning and using Ogam were given the “geasa,” the Druid death curse. With both Caesar’s, and later the Christians’ persecutions, Druidism disappeared from public view. A 14th century Irish monk prevented its total loss when he copied some 70 versions of it from older manuscripts into the “Ogam Tract” of the Book of Ballymote, now in the Irish Museum in Dublin, Ireland. Robert Graves and Barry Fell both discovered and reported it (both independently) in modern books, The White Goddess by Graves and America B. C. by Fell.(23)

It is these (alphabets and written languages) that Fell and others have found engraved in rocks all over the North and South American continents, Europe, North Africa, and other places. That Europeans, Asians, and Africans had no contact with this land before Columbus is a fantasy, still held, unfortunately, by some diehard professionals who stick to their own pet theories and refuse to look at, or seriously consider, the facts.


I do not want to be responsible for claiming something that isn’t true, or misleading others in any way. I have read the books byYair Davidy, Barry Fell, Raymond Capt, Jean Hunt, and others, but they, not I, did the original research on the information contained in them. Most of the conclusions drawn, however, are my own, although many are shared with them. My conclusions are based only on my understanding of these well-researched books and my own education, reading, and experiences. Although I was a member of The Epigraphic Society for a number of years and even corresponded with Barry Fell before his death, I did not personally contribute anything to its “Occasional Publications.” Also, I make no claims as to the accuracy of these books to anyone other than myself. I believe most of what they say and accept their research as valid. The reader will have to accept or reject the information contained herein.

Regarding Barry Fell’s non-controversial tendencies, what he often called Arabs (to avoid religious arguments by calling them Israelites), I believe to be (and am calling them) Israelites and, specifically, Dan.

Ninety-five per cent of the world’s research is in English; the language of computers is English. Orwell thought that man would be enslaved by cynical semantic manipulation and narrowing of the language, but language really seems to be the great liberator.

Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book I, VII:2, claimed of Abraham that “He communicated to them (Egyptians) arithmetic, and delivered to them the science of astronomy...for that science came from the Chaldeans into Egypt....” It seems that Eternal has ever worked with one particular group of people, Abraham’s line of people and, through him and his offspring, has caused the entire world to be blessed. We need to understand that we people of America, Britain, Europe, and Scandinavia are these same people.

The “Lost Tribes” are definitely not lost. I have used the Tribe of Dan as a microcosm to represent all of Israel because Dan was the “pioneer” of Israel. Where Dan went, Israel always followed. The peculiar symbiosis of Dan with his Uncle Esau has intrigued me for years. When some of Dan left Egypt before their brothers were enslaved, I can see these lonesome, lost, and fearful people seeking their own kin in and around Mt. Seir, which is where Esau still remained at that time in history. From that moment on, a relationship began that never ended.

Again, Numbers 26 might nullify this argument completely, with “Phoenicia” being Issachar, Dan, and parts of Asher and Zebulon. Some of Esau migrated to the interior of Asia, Mongolia itself being one of its tribes. Could others of Esau have gone immediately to ships and become the Phoenicia-Carthaginian nautical power while some traveled to the East, returning later to become present-day Turkey?

This work could just as easily have been entitled “Tracing Israel.” Where Dan went, Israel also went. Dan went first, though, especially to America, and probably also to Greece, North Africa, Scandinavia, and Ireland. In some cases they went alone, while in other cases they went united. Today, Israel can be found in the Democracies of West Europe, Scandinavia, the British Isles, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Canada, and the United States.

One of these Israelite tribes, the Tribe of Dan, is very much alive and well and is, perhaps even more so than any other Israelite tribe, strewn about the entire earth. We find them in Ireland, Wales, Scandinavia, and mixed in Europe with all the other Celtic people. The Irish, Welsh, British are a large part of America. Yes, even a large part of the British might be Dan. In The Tribes, we find that those we call “Saxons” were most likely Danites, or Dan mixed with Judah. Those we call “Angles” were most likely Judah, or .Judah mixed with Dan.(24)

Dan, even from early times, rebelled a little but accomplished much. Dan had vision that some of the other Tribes lacked. He had imagination. What can be imagined can be achieved.

Remnants of Dan are among some of the Amerindian tribes, Polynesia, and perhaps even in some jungle recesses of Peru. Alphabetical writing, art, sculpture, architectural innovations, ivory working, nautical power, even horsemanship, all owe more than a little to Dan and his kinsman, Esau. Like all the rest of us Israelites, Dan will have to be awakened from a long sleep and told who he really is. But when he does come to his senses, I believe that Eternal will find Dan to be a loyal, stalwart, optimistic, and dedicated child.
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PostSubject: Re: Tracing Dan   Sat Aug 08, 2009 11:36 am


(1) ‘The Han Tribes of the Dene,” ESOP, Vol. 17, p. 12. (This portion is from ESOP, Vol. 19, 1990, article “North American Indian Tribal Names,” by E. Morgan Kelley, Ph.D., The College of William and Mary, Virginia, pp. 83-91).

(2) “Celts and the Dene,” ESOP, Vol. 17, p. 12.

(3) Nielson, Richard, “The Arabic Numbering System on the Kensington Rune Stone,” ESOP, 1986, pp. 47-61 and “The Kensington Runestone: Part 2, Aberrant Letters New Evidence from Greenland, Iceland and Scandinavia,” ESOP, 1987, pp.51-78.

(4) Kinder/Hilgemann, Atlas of World History, pp. 114-125.

(5) Gallagher, Ida Jane, “Schaghticoke Deed to New Fairfield, Connecticut,” p. 101.

(6) Fell, Saga, p. 266. See also ABC, p. 169.

(7) Fell, ABC, p. 173.

(Cool Ibid., p. 175.

(9) Totten, Op.cit., p. 84.

(10) Guthrie, James L., “Gene Frequency Distributions in Epigraphic Research: Possible Indic Influence on the Tewa of New Mexico,” ESOP, 1986, pp. 69-76.

(11) Casey, Albert E. And Downey-Prince, Eleanor L., ESOP, 1979, pp. 138-156.

(12) Mourant,A.E.; Kopec, Ada C.; and Domaniewska-Sobczak, The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups and Other Polymorphisms, London, 1976.

(13) Guthrie, Op.cit., p. 75.

(14) Fell, ABC, p. 178.

(15) Hunt, Tracking, pp. 94-95, from Dr. James L. Guthrie’s “Comparison of Gene Frequency,” written at Jean Hunt’s request in Louisiana Mounds Society newsletter, (No. 36, Dec. 11, 1990).

(16) Ibid.

(17) Hunt, Op.cit., p. 98.

(18) Ibid.

(19) Ibid., p. 245.

(20) Ibid., Jean Hunt quoting Donnelly, Ignatius, Atlantis: The Antedeluvian World, New Jersey, 1949.

(21) Ibid.

(22) Ibid., Jean Hunt quoting Spencer, Lewis, The Magic Arts in Celtic Britain, London, 1945.

(23) Ibid.

(24) Davidy, Yair, The Tribes, p. 215.


Capt, Raymond E. Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets, U.S.A., 1995.

Carter, George F. ESOP (Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers), “The Money Cowry and the Midewiwin Society,” 1986.

Casey, Albert E., Downey-Prince, Eleanor L. ESOP, 1979. “Celts and Dene.” ESOP, Vol. 17.

Davidy, Yair. Lost Israelite Identity. The Hebrew Ancestry of Celtic Races, Russell-Davis, Hebron, Israel, 1996.

Davidy, Yair. The Tribes. The Israelite Origins of Western Peoples, Hebron, Israel, 1993.

Davidy, Yair. “The Western Hemisphere Before 1492: A Historical Outline,” Canada, 1975.

Fell, Barry. America B.C., Times Books, New York, 1976; softcover ed. Pocket Books, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1978.

Fell, Barry ESOP, “Etymology of the Lower Mississippian Languages-Part 1: Introduction,” 1990.

Fell, Barry Saga America, Times Books, New York, 1980.

Gallagher, Ida Jane. “Schaghticoke Deed to New Fairfield, Connecticut.”

Gawler, Colonel J.C., Keeper of the Crown Jewels. “Dan The Pioneer of Israel. His Early Enterprise, His Settlements, and Connections with the Scythians,” Artisan Sales, Thousand Oaks, California, 1984. Reprinted from WH. Guest, London, 1880.

Guthrie, James L. ESOP, “Gene Frequency Distributions in Epigraphic Research: Possible Indic Influence on the Tewa of New Mexico,” 1986.

Hunt, Jean. Tracking the Flood Survivors, Hunt Associates, Inc., 1991.

Kelley, E. Morgan. ESOP, “The Han Tribes of the Dene,” Vol. 19, 1990, from his article, “North American Indian Tribal Names,” The College of William and Mary, Virginia.

Kinder, K.H., Hilgeman, Werner. The Penguin Atlas of World History, Trans. E.A. Menze, U.K., 1974.

Kraus, Gerhard, ESOP, “In Honor of Elliot Smith & William James Perry, Founders of Diffusionist Theory,” 1986.

McClone, William R., Leonard, Phillip M. ESOP, “The Epigraphic Controversy,” 1986.

Mourant, A.E., Kopec, Ada C., Dornaniewska-Sobczak. The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups and Other Polymorphisms, London, 1976.

Nielson, Richard. ESOP, “The Arabic Numbering System on the Kensington Rune Stone,” 1986.

Nielson, Richard. ESOP, “The Kensington Runestone: Part 2, Aberrant Letters, New Evidence from Greenland, Iceland and Scandinavia, 1987.

Nollau, Guenther, Utriusque, Iuris. ESOP, “Ten Commandments in the New Mexico Desert,” 1986.

Rude, Noel. “The Ancient Near East,” (Study paper), 1980’s?

Tesla, Paul. ESOP, “Pre-Columbian Diffusion: New Lights and Old-The General Scene,” 1986.

Totten, Norman. ESOP, “Old World Contacts with America,” 1986.

Trento, Salvataore Michael. The Search for Lost America: The Mysteries of the Stone Ruins,Contemporary Books, Inc., Chicago.


Caesar, Julius. The Gallic War, Trans. By Rex Warner, London, 1960.

Diodorus of Sicily. (Diodorus Siculus, Ca. 50 B.C.E.), Trans. By U. Oldfather, London, 1968.

Donnelly, Ignatius. Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, New Jersey, 1949.

Herodotus (Ca. 430 B.C.E.). The History of Herodotus, Trans. G. Rawlinson, London, 1858.

Josephus, Flavius. Jewish Antiquities, Trans. H.J. Thakeray.

Kashani, Reuben. The Ten Tribes, Hebrew, Jerusalem, 1984.

Mazar, A. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, 10,000-586 B.C.E., U.S.A., 1990.

Piggott, Stuart. Ancient Europe from the Beginnings of Agriculture to Classical Antiquity, Edinburgh, Scotland, U.K., 1965.

Seaman, Stuart S. The Western Hemisphere Before 1492. A Historical Outline, Ontario, 1975.

Spencer, Lewis. The Magic Arts in Celtic Britain, London, 1945.

Strabo. The Geography of Strabo (D. Ca. 21 C.E.), Trans. H.L. Jones, U.K., 1923.

Velikovsky, Immanuel. Peoples of the Sea, U.K., 1977.
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